Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Patchi Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words

Patchi - Research Paper Example Therefore, the Global Strategy and Competitiveness of the company is being highlighted in the paper. Introduction Patchi was a company that originated from the Middle East in Lebanon. Since then, it has expanded to around five continents and excelled in business. Patchi has created its unique name after being originated in 1974 and has 130 branches worldwide. Patchi is a brand name that has created its own goodwill by attaching the unique idea of chocolates to celebrations and love. This is quite similar to the way the De Beers created a market for diamonds by relating them to love. Yet, the idea has created a permanent place in the hearts of the people and hence, Patchi has attracted vivid brand loyalty. Patchi has outstood as a producer of premium and best quality chocolates. The idea has been exacerbated from not only the consumption of chocolates but to create an emotional attachment as well. Thus, Patchi deals not only in chocolates alone but also in gifts that range from a vari ety of occasions such as weddings, new born babies, graduations and other special occasions and celebrations. The outlets have the best quality chocolate that has been hand manufactured and adorned in a special manner so as to create a special aura. Thus, the market segmentation for Patchi is quite different from that of the regular chocolate segment. There are people throughout the world who consume chocolate merely because of their association with taste. But Patchi is a distinct name in the chocolate market and is usually associated with celebrations, presents and happiness. It is however, a fact that the chocolate is a non-durable consumer product that prevails in a very competitive market system. There are many buyers and sellers of chocolates and big names such as Cadbury, Nestle and Hershey’s stand as tough competition. Thus, this paper would focus upon the global business and competitive strategies adopted by Patchi so as to survive in the market. Industry Situation H istory Chocolate, which is enjoyed today by millions of people all over the world, is one of the oldest inventions of mankind. It is actually a natural product obtained from cocoa seeds that are processed and manufactured so as to meet the taste requirements of people today. The first cocoa plantations were done by the Mayan Dynasty that dates back to 600 A.D (Chapter 1). These beans were high priced and were used as articles of trade as well as to make a drink called â€Å"chocolatl.† This beverage was very famous at that time. It was made by crushing the cocoa seeds and adding honey or vanilla spices (Chapter 1) so as to enhance its taste. Christopher Columbus is also said to have taken some cocoa seeds with him merely because of his curiosity (Chapter 1). Thus, in 1520s this drink was introduced in Spain but with the added element of sugar in it (Chapter 1). The first chocolate factory was set up after the Industrial Revolution in Bristol in UK by Joseph Fry. Other factori es that developed within a short period of time included, Rowntree, Cadbury and Hershey. Thus, the chocolate factory became a profitable business for the people at that time. The chocolate was enjoyed by the aristocracy as well as by the general public. Moreover, the Industrial Revolution meant more jobs for people and hence, the chocolate factories provided ample employment and better working conditions. Development It had then been realized that chocolate had

Monday, October 28, 2019

Courage in To Kill a Mockingbird Essay Example for Free

Courage in To Kill a Mockingbird Essay The book, To Kill a Mockingbird, is told from the point of view of a girl named Scout Finch. The story is set in a predominantly white neighborhood. Scouts father is a lawyer, and the story begins when he is tasked to defend an African-American wrongly accused of raping a white woman (Lee 2002). The involvement of Atticus Finch in this case brings upon them verbal and physical abuse, such that Scout almost fought off her aggressors in school with her fists (Lee 2002). Her father, Atticus, tells her not to be provoked, to keep out of trouble, as they should not mind what other people are saying (Lee 2002).   This shows what Plutarch is saying regarding courage: â€Å"Courage consists not in hazarding fear, but being resolutely minded in a just cause.† For sure, Atticus is fearful for his strong-willed daughter and son; however, he is resolute on defending Tom Robinson. Atticus courage is not about skirting fear, but seeing only the justification for taking on Tom Robinsons case. Like a horse with blinders, Atticus is focused on the case. This is why he does not want Scout or Scouts brother Jem, to fight other people when they taunt the children regarding the case: other people do not matter. As long as Atticus knows that what he is doing is right, opinions of other people should not bother him. This is what he is trying to instill upon his children. He is also trying to teach them that courage does not only come from ones fist or the barrel of the gun; courage is being deciding to follow through with a decision whatever it takes, regarding the insurmountable challenges. This for me is one of the aspects of courage. It is important to be resolute on a decision. As people say, obstacles occur when our mind is taken off the goal. It also takes courage to keep ones eyes on the goal, to ignore the obstacles in our peripheral vision. No matter how insurmountable the challenge is, we still have to go for it, especially if we believe it to be right. Our world is shaped by people faced with impossibilities, yet they did not give up. These people caused the French Revolution, invented light bulbs, fought for womens suffrage. We all live in a better world today because of them, and they did it because they had courage.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Courage I feel, is also found in everyday decisions. Obviously, it takes courage to sign the document that would start the Manhattan project, but courage is also involved when one befriends a stranger too. Scout does this in the book, befriending and trying to see what the world is like for Boo Radley (Lee 2002). Other people shun him, and make up horrible stories instead, but Scout has the courage of a child not yet corrupted by the world. In the end, she realizes that he is a good person. This is a courageous act, admitting your mistake, and accepting someone ostracized by society. Scout may not be aware of the implications of her action, but she flouted her neighborhoods notion of propriety (just like her dad), and reinstating the fact that humans are above the standards we set for ourselves. This is courage too. And I believe that this is the hardest of all to do. To fight injustices in your everyday life is not only exhausting but harrowing, yet this is one area you will be able to do your most. Everyday decisions require staunchness of decision; these decisions are not â€Å"one-time big-time† deals. You will live with the effects of these decisions for every single day of the rest of your life, and the effects will be magnified.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Courage also must precede all other qualities. If one does not have the courage to do what is right, even if one has a sense of what is right and wrong, this knowledge will not be put to use, because fear will convolute ones sense of right and wrong. Winston Churchill once said, â€Å"Courage is rightly esteemed the first of human qualities because it is the quality which guarantees all others.† In the book, Atticus was courageous enough to follow through with his conviction that Tom Robinson is innocent (Lee 2002). He knows he will inevitably lose the case, as the jury is all-white (Lee 2002). Yet, he forges on. If he did not push through with his decision, or if he wavers, we would not have seen his other attributes: a responsible and loving father, an understanding neighbor, an upright man. If he had let himself be dwarfed by fear, we would not have seen the other qualities, as these have all been dwarfed by fear.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There is another aspect to courage I must point out: courage is not being able to not know fear while undertaking a difficult task. Courage knows this fear, even before one accepts the task, and yet goes on with it anyway. Courage, for me, knows fear, of being fully aware of the implications of your decision, and you continue because you will not forgive yourself if you did not do the right thing or if you continue so that those who come after you will not be placed in the same situation. This for me is the essence of courage: of making a decision, and acting upon it, so that other people will not have to make the same decision because you have made the world a better place to live in. Courage prefers to go out like a blaze in the night. It is, to quote Dylan Thomas, to go not gently into the night, and to rage, rage against the dying of the light.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Berkeley :: essays research papers

5. Explain and assess Berkeley’s most powerful reasons for thinking that things other than minds have no absolute existence altogether apart from or independent of minds. Metaphysics is the study of the ultimate nature of reality and deals with what is truly real as oppose to what appears to be real. Berkeley is an idealist who believes that things other than minds have no absolute existence altogether apart from or independent of minds. He has several arguments but only the resemblance argument and the inconceivability argument will be discussed, as they are the most powerful reasons for thinking this. I believe that Berkeley proves his theory of absolute existence must be dependent on the mind through resemblance and inconceivability. Realists believe what is ultimately real is independent from the mind and possess the primary qualities such as extension, shape, solidity and motion regardless of being conceived. This is opposite from Berkeley’s and other idealists views. Berkeley does not believe that these primary qualities are the only things that define existence. Secondary qualities include colours, sounds, odors, and tastes must also be present. Secondary qualities are mind dependent and they are perceptions. These qualities are very important in Berkeley’s discussion on existence with respect to resemblance and inconceivability. One of Berkeley’s most powerful reasons for absolute existence is proved through the resemblance argument. He believes that only something visually experienced can be like a visual experience, so ideas resemble other ideas. He continues to say ideas are mind dependent so no ideas can resemble qualities of a mind independent idea with respect to sense experience. For example, the idea of a unicorn is mind-dependent and resembles unicorns from fairytales as a horse with a horn. If there were never a sense experience with a unicorn, no ideas would resemble the qualities. Berkeley states â€Å"I appeal to any one whether it be sense to assert a colour is like something which is invisible; hard or soft, like something which is intangible; and so of the rest.† We no what is hard because we have experiences with objects that are harder, softer, or the same. Betrand Russell objects to Berkeley’s notion of resemblance with two things, the first being that ideas represent reality by mapping reality not resembling it, and second, experiences only correspond to the idea, they do not resemble it. Take a scenic picture, looking at the picture, one would be able to tell what objects are closer or further away but the picture is flat, not 3d. Berkeley :: essays research papers 5. Explain and assess Berkeley’s most powerful reasons for thinking that things other than minds have no absolute existence altogether apart from or independent of minds. Metaphysics is the study of the ultimate nature of reality and deals with what is truly real as oppose to what appears to be real. Berkeley is an idealist who believes that things other than minds have no absolute existence altogether apart from or independent of minds. He has several arguments but only the resemblance argument and the inconceivability argument will be discussed, as they are the most powerful reasons for thinking this. I believe that Berkeley proves his theory of absolute existence must be dependent on the mind through resemblance and inconceivability. Realists believe what is ultimately real is independent from the mind and possess the primary qualities such as extension, shape, solidity and motion regardless of being conceived. This is opposite from Berkeley’s and other idealists views. Berkeley does not believe that these primary qualities are the only things that define existence. Secondary qualities include colours, sounds, odors, and tastes must also be present. Secondary qualities are mind dependent and they are perceptions. These qualities are very important in Berkeley’s discussion on existence with respect to resemblance and inconceivability. One of Berkeley’s most powerful reasons for absolute existence is proved through the resemblance argument. He believes that only something visually experienced can be like a visual experience, so ideas resemble other ideas. He continues to say ideas are mind dependent so no ideas can resemble qualities of a mind independent idea with respect to sense experience. For example, the idea of a unicorn is mind-dependent and resembles unicorns from fairytales as a horse with a horn. If there were never a sense experience with a unicorn, no ideas would resemble the qualities. Berkeley states â€Å"I appeal to any one whether it be sense to assert a colour is like something which is invisible; hard or soft, like something which is intangible; and so of the rest.† We no what is hard because we have experiences with objects that are harder, softer, or the same. Betrand Russell objects to Berkeley’s notion of resemblance with two things, the first being that ideas represent reality by mapping reality not resembling it, and second, experiences only correspond to the idea, they do not resemble it. Take a scenic picture, looking at the picture, one would be able to tell what objects are closer or further away but the picture is flat, not 3d.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Behavioral Assignment

For example if the company is performing admirably, your payments are not going to increase, but if you compare this situation With an equity investor, the market will incorporate to the stock price these results and your remover will be higher. On the other hand if the company Starts having some problems and cannot achieve its goals, your payments will remain the same.This situation only changes when the default risk increases, and this doses â€Å"t happen in a very quick span of time In the case of equity, the scope for disagreement is larger and more sensitive, because the payoffs are uncertain and depend on the beliefs of the fundamental value of the company. It can be also seen below that equity payoffs are linear with respect to investor beliefs in relation to underlying asset value; however, debt up-side payoffs are fixed at some constant rate, ND are consequently non-linear (I. E. Concave) in the investor beliefs about the fundamental value.Source: Hong & Serer 2011 b) Safe debt has less default risk than risky debt, which means that its payoffs are more protected and the payoff graph has a more concave shape. The more secure an asset is, the less sensitive the investors are to the beliefs about fundamentals. The upside is here more bounded and is less sensitive to disagreement. When a bond is more risky there is a greater probability for default and the investors are more sensitive to the changes in the fundamental value of the company. Beliefs start having a greater influence on the asset valuation.In the following formula we can see that if the default probability is very low, the safe debt payoff will also be lower and less sensitive to disagreements. C) When optimism increases investors start seeing debt more as a risk-free asset that has less upside with reduced resale option. Rising optimism leads to larger misprinting. In this scenario the optimistic investors will continue to buy the bonds from the pessimistic investors, so there will be more optimistic investors holding the asset and the disagreement among the investors will be owe, and lead to a lower price volatility.The bond will also have less turnover. The pessimistic investors won t become optimistic, they just want to sell their bond. The model suggested by Hong and Serer(2013) considers a two-date trading model with dates t -?O, 1, N risky assets and the risk-free rate as r. The dividend delivered by the risky asset at time t=l is given by the equation: , where represents the cash flow beta of asset I, and is the state of the macro economy.There are two groups of investors: 1) The optimists (group A), who believe that the economy will be better in t=l -b EAI[z = +h 2) The sometimes(group B), who believe that the economy will be worse – 3) So the expected difference between optimists and pessimists is given by: EAI[z] – BE[z] = When is small (I. E. Low macro disagreement) , the equilibrium price will depend both on the optimists and pessimists valu ation, equaling However, when X is large (high disagreement about future macroeconomic conditions), the demand of pessimists (given by ) is so low that it will hit short sale constraints.Thus, the equilibrium price will be determined only by optimists' valuation, since the pessimists will be sidelined from the market: . This equilibrium price is higher than the unconstrained price, which means that the stock N will be over-priced, due to high macroeconomic disagreement about fundamental factors, when compared to the traditional CAMP model prediction. As predicted by the dividend equation: , the higher the beta of the stock, the higher the effect of the disagreement about its future cash flows will be.Thus, short-sale constraints will occur with higher probability for high-beta, high risk stocks. Short-sales constraints might be binding for some investors due to institutional reasons. An example are mutual funds, which are prohibited to worth stocks directly by certain government act s and regulations. According to the arguments above, misprinting is more pronounced for high- beta stocks or for periods of higher disagreement. Thus, stocks from higher beta sectors such as technology, consumer retail, automotive, construction are more likely to experience overpricing and bubbles.Higher disagreement occurs either at times, when market optimism prevails -? continuous bull markets, combined with expansionary monetary policy for prolonged period, or when market pessimism prevails – crisis times, described by high volatility ND panic sell-offs, causing stocks to be undervalued. Bubbles are often hard to detect and ascertain, but tend to form most often when certain industry sectors are experiencing a technological revolution. Bubbles, crashes and financial crisis have been a repeating occurrence for long (e. G. He South Sea Bubble, canals and railroads in the 1 sass, the Internet in the sass) (Predetermine & McKee, 2012). A technological revolution in an industr y causes a boom in asset prices; however, as the momentum of the bubble increases, the rise in prices cannot be justified anymore by fundamentals as people continue to make ever-rising valuations. It is difficult to identify an asset's true fundamental value, and this is especially true for new technologies that have may seem as the next big thing, but have uncertain long-run prospects.Similarly, pastor & Versions (2008) argue that bubbles in stock prices can occur after technological revolutions if the productivity of the technology to be implemented is unknown and subject to learning. This affects both the level and volatility of stock prices. Critically, stock prices of innovative firms initially rise due to optimism and DOD news about the productivity of the firm due to the technological innovation, but eventually fall as the technology risk alters from affecting only the firm to being systematic (Pastor & Versions, 2008).The bubbles can only be observed retrospectively, and are most greatly amplified in revolutions than involve high uncertainty and fast adoption. For example the expansion of both railroads in the sass and internet infrastructure in the 1 sass was characterized by overstatement that ultimately depressed prices on an aggregate level as additional projects had negative returns due to industrialization.Also, in the case of the internet bubble, investors were lured in to invest by promising companies such as Amazon and America Online, but later companies had often no idea how to be commercially viable and essentially were riding the bubble (Dominant, 2014). Bubbles may hence be amplified by speculation and the idea that individuals observe and adopt the behavior of others (Levine & Jack, 2007). Especially in the case of the internet bubble optimists tend to push up the asset price, whereas more pessimistic investors cannot counterbalance this due to short-sale constraints (Predetermine & McKee, 2012).Thus genealogical revolution tends to lead to projects with initial profits, and leads to overoptimistic tendencies for the whole industry. As prices exceed fundamentals and new entrants/projects turn sour, the bubble eventually collapses. In the case where there is only one share of the asset available and there is one optimist and one pessimist in the market, the pessimist will sell the asset to the optimist at a price higher than the mean evaluation of the two investors.Here the single optimistic buyer can absorb the entire supply of one share. The average price is 75, thus the traded price will be in the range 75. The traded price rises when there are two homogeneous groups Of investors, I. E. When there are more optimistic traders in the market. They will bid up the price until it reaches the valuation of the optimists, I. E. 100. This will be the traded price. Thus, as according to Miller (1977) without short selling the price of the asset is increased if there is a divergence of opinion.In such a market the demand for the asset will come from the traders who have the most optimistic expectations of its value. The most optimistic investor tends to win the bidding and their evaluation of the asset ends up being its actual price. This can be also seen in the diagram below. Supply is inelastic at N, so the price is higher than the equilibrium rate. Only optimistic traders will trade at the prices where the demand curve meets the inelastic supply curve.Also, as seen in the diagram, different investors have different demand curves; the most optimistic one will have the highest valuation. (Source: Miller, 1977) Due to the binding short selling constraint, less optimistic traders who would like to short an asset cannot do so. Thus this is necessary for optimists to be able to set prices. Also volume is crucial. The more optimists there are will signify that the asset's price will be bid up to the valuation of optimists. This is especially true when the asset is scarce (e. . Only one or a few exist), as in this case there will be ample demand by the optimists (who may be a minority in the market) bid up and set the prices. The price of a security is higher the greater the divergence of opinion about the return from the security (Miller 1977). So we can say that if there is a big divergence of opinion in the market, the price will be even higher because the price only reflects the optimistic investors, and this also causes more volatility and more risk to the stock. Since the annual discount rate is a variable, and the time to maturity T is a constant, we can apply the rule: Then the expected value that the optimist attaches to the bond is given by: , 51 once The expected value Of the pessimist is given by: b) The difference of the natural logarithms of their attached values is: In According to the result, there is a positive correlation between the bond maturity T and the level of the disagreement between the investors, so the longer the bond maturity T, the higher the disagreement between the optimist and the pessimist will be. ) According to Miller (1977) the greater the disagreement the higher the rice. As we saw in the previous step bonds with longer maturity have greater disagreement, which leads to stronger misprinting because the price of the bond will only be affected by the optimistic investors (since pessimistic investors cannot affect the prices because of short-sale constraints). Thus, misprinting will be more pronounced at the long end of maturities, than at the short end.Also the longer the maturity of the bond the higher the expected return, according to a regular bond yield curve. If misprinting is more pronounced, the price of bonds will go up, causing a shift downwards in the lied curve, so average realized bond returns should be lower than the expected. A) Investor B starts with rational beliefs at t-?O, so his expectation of an upward move is â€Å"10=0. In case of an upward move at node u his expectation of an upward move TTL is given by : , A further move up to position u will give: A move down to position dud gives: An initial downward move to d yields: Going another node down to ad: And moving up in the second period to du gives: b) Investor Bi's beliefs about the value of the stock seem irrational at point ‘dud' and ‘du' since at ‘dud' his expectation of an upward move is , while at ‘du' it equals . Actually these positions represent one and the same point on the binomial tree, where the fundamental value of the asset should be constant. Behavioral assignment Even though according to Prospect theory the individualistically function is concave in the gains region, implying that they are risk averse, its shape changes to convex for very small probabilities. Usually people treat the outcomes based on a reference point, usually their current wealth, from which they evaluate gains and losses. For that reason a certain gain of $1 0 is not perceived as bringing any significant utility to let's say average middle-class individual, while the possibility, even though small, of winning SIS 000 would actually bring a quite significant change to his wealth.The opposite goes for the perceived utilities and the utility function, when in the loss region. Even a small probability of losing a significant amount ($10 000), which will severely affect the wealth of the individuals is misperceived as relatively high and undesirable as opposed to the certain, but small loss of $10, which will not affect the wealth of the person around his reference point.Some r eal life analogues of the conducted experiment might be buying a lottery ticket, where the individual even gets a small, but negative payoff, on average, or establishing a start-up business, where an entrepreneur invests capital with the hope Of receiving higher return in time, instead of investing the money in a bond or a bank deposit at a risk-free rate. Examples for certain small losses might be a person buying insurance policies and paying a small premium, but avoiding the risk of theft, road accident etc. Q.The distribution is not normal, but rather positively skewed, with higher percentage of positive earnings surprise than negative. There is also bunching at the O value, inferring a high probability that the average of analysts' forecasts coincides with the actual earnings reported. This distribution of recast errors actually implies that analysts have a downward bias when producing their estimations. A reason for this might be that analysts have asymmetric loss function, imp lying that they can be more harshly punished for under-prediction than for over-prediction.This is due to reactions of investors who, in most cases, have prospect theory utility functions, rather than conventional expected utility functions I. E. Their losses hurt more than gains of the same magna etude increase utility. In terms of the earnings surprise this means that when the actual earnings miss analysts' projections, he negative returns on stocks in the following days are much more pronounced due to investors unwilling to hold the stock and selling with larger volumes.In the opposite case of a positive surprise, investors' utility function is less steep in the gains region and the magnitude of increased purchases of the stock is less pronounced. Boon and Woman (2002) estimate at least six reasons for the analysts' downward bias when producing forecasts: internal pressures for earning higher brokerage commissions, pressure from management of companies that analysts cover, herdin g behavior to follow other analysts' projections, pressure from large institutional investors that analysts work with, conflicts with analysts' personal investments or unintentional cognitive biases of the analysts.Other plausible reference points in terms of expected earnings might be results from past quarters + some premium/discount, depending on how the company performed in the most recent quarter, or the earnings reported by companies, operating in the same industry I. E. Competitors. Investor A If the stock goes up, he would be keener to sell in order to realize his gains. The Prospect Theory utility function, which is concave in the region of gains, wows us there will be a point where an increase in his profit will bring very low marginal utility, so at this point the investor would be keen to sell.If we assume that the investor bought when , the more the stock rises and moves into more concave regions, , until it reaches the point of sell: If the stock goes down, he will hol d the stock because he won ‘t accept his loss and try to hold it until the price of the stock returns to the price where he bought the stock (his reference point). He would be more concerned with the potential value of losses and gains than the total wealth outcome, so he would be more inclined to sell when the stock was in the gain-making region, and less likely to sell and more likely to hold at the loss-making region.This is an observation of the disposition effect, tested by Dean (1998). Investor B If the stock goes up he will like to buy more shares. As an optimistic investor, he would trade more because of the profits that he is making, and the belief that he has information that others don t and that if the stock its going up, the momentum is likely to continue. If the stock goes down, he will like to sell because for him the market it's telling him that this stock its not worth holding anymore.The most important thing for him in order to make a decision for buy or sell is to receive a signal from the market and as an overconfident investor he would think that he has information that the market doses ;t and could benefit from that In other words he will consider the pure noise from the stock price movement as a signal and overweight it () The two investors could trade when the price of the stock rises, relative to their reference point because in that point investor A is more willing to sell and realize the gain and investor B is more willing to buy, because of the overestimated weight on the signal.Also they could trade when the price goes down and reaches a certain point when investor A no longer can hold the position (has sustained huge losses) and investor B could get a signal from the market, that the stock is already undervalued. A) 1 . Overstatement – empirical data show that there are cases when Coos truly believe that certain investment policies are creating value for the company. However, their beliefs are quite often in discrepan cy with the broad view of market participants, which is reflected in the stock value.These investment incentives are more pronounced in companies, that are cash rich, nice Coos will not be constrained by lack of funds and allocate the available cash according to their overconfident beliefs. 2. Corporate Financing – instead of opting for the more rational choice of choosing sustainable mix of debt and equity financing, combined with the use of the company's outstanding cash, overconfident Coos tend to use larger percentage of financing with cash or debt, since they consider equity financing excessively costly and believe that the market is undervaluing their company. . Overbidding in acquisitions – scholarly research has found evidence that overconfident Coos overestimate their ability to generate returns for their company. This is why such Coos have a tendency to overpay for target companies and undertake mergers that actually bring lower than expected value. A proof f or this might be found in market reactions after announcement, where the negative return after the announcement is more pronounced for companies, whose managers are considered as overconfident by investors.In the last two decades U. S firms spent more than $ 3. 4 trillion on mergers, and if CEO ;s were thinking only about the interests f their shareholders probably they would have acted in a different way, because their actions caused losses amounting to roughly $220 billion (Maintained, Tate 2007). B) CEO overconfidence does not necessarily have to be a bad thing, since this aspect is quite closely con nested with affinity to taking higher risk.Higher risk, in turn, might lead either to more pronounced negative or positive outcome for the company, and thus also allowing for a beneficial outcome to shareholder interests. Also, such individuals, for reasons connected with their genetics or upbringing, are among the most successful and influential people n society. As discussed in the paper â€Å"CEO overconfidence and innovation† by Galas, Simoom (2011 more confident Coos tend to disregard the risk of failure and thus more eagerly indulge in R&D and innovation strategies, which eventually bring higher value to shareholders.Real life examples of such Coos might be Steve Jobs (Apple Inc. ), Leon Musk (Tests Motors). Question 5 In the presented case, an overoptimistic person will tend to have higher anticipatory utility during his youth, but eventually as time progresses the actual realization will with a high probability be less than his anticipations, so e will get lower realization utility. The total utility he gets will depend on the weights he puts on those two utilities.If you educate your child to be overoptimistic, in the future for example when he receives his pension fund he will expect certain amount of money, let's say $1,000 per month, but instead if he actually receives $900 he will feel as if he lost $100, regardless if that amount of money r epresents a good income for him or not. On the other hand if he receives $1 r 1 00 he won ‘t feel the satisfaction of having more money. The feeling when you lose is deeper than when you win.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Budgetary slack Essay

Budgetary slack refers to the deliberate adjustment of additional cash outlays in expectation of future cash flow. The people involved in creating a budget intentionally underestimate the amount of revenue or overestimate the amount of expenses. For example, if a plant manager believes that the cost of raw materials will be RM250,000 but gives a budgetary projection of RM300,000, the manager has built in RM50,000 of slack into the budget. Budgetary slack is most common when a company uses participative budgeting. It involves the participation of a large number of employees which gives them more chances to introduce budgetary slack into the budget. They may set budget standards that are too loose and hence, easily to achieve target. There are few reasons why managers practice budgetary slack. 1) Self-interest behavior of managers. When the top management placed heavy pressure upon lower level managers who prepare budget, they create budgetary slack to make the budget look achievable so they can avoid the burden of failure. Managers want to look successful in terms of budgetary performance by creating a lower performance benchmark relative to their actual capabilities to receive favourable evaluation and reputation in the top management. Managers have incentive to overestimate project costs that builds in budgetary slack. This allows the project manager to present the finished project as coming in under-budget. If the real cost of the project turns out to be lower than the exaggerated cost projection, the manager will be perceived as being capable to manage the project in a cost-efficient manner. 2) Information asymmetry Information asymmetry forms a favourable condition for slack creation. Managers acquire more private information because they are closer to the decision environment than their superiors. Managers present a distorted picture of business possibilities to their superiors and create budgetary slack by preventing the disclosure of all the information to the top management. From the example above, the manager may obtain information that other supplier offers a lower price of raw materials and hide the information during the preparation budget.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Sex Education in Public Schools Essay Example

Sex Education in Public Schools Essay Example Sex Education in Public Schools Essay Sex Education in Public Schools Essay Essay Topic: The Second Sex Today, formal courses and discussions on sex education are offered in the public school system all over the United States both on the elementary and secondary level.Recent school programs are adopted the principle that complete information about sex, suitable to the developmental level of children and youth, is desirable. The underlying premise is that sex is normal, natural phase of life and that an objective knowledge in this field by youth should be regarded as making for a potentially good adjustment.The programs call for an unemotional, objective yet moral approach to sex education, which should continue into adult life. The emphasis is on the development of wholesome attitudes and personal adjustment. (Menachem, 1986, p, 140)While sex education is deemed necessary there are many who still question whether it belongs to the elementary schools.   The schools and the agencies view sex education as a program to help boys and girls achieve a happy, healthy sex attitude and a norma l, stable family life. The religious and spiritual dimension of sex, however does not find a place in to such a program, since public schools and secular organizations seem to reflect mostly the new morality that is in fashion in contemporary society.Public School is nearly a universal experience as exists in our society. While supplementary means may be necessary to reach some teens, the vast majority are reachable in the school setting. Second, public schools provides an opportunity for the early introduction and timely and continuous reinforcement of age- appropriate sex education material as it becomes relevant at succeeding developmental stages. Although the public schools are beleaguered, sex-related preventive education is viewed as so necessary and the schools are so potentially good a vehicle as to justify further claims on a system with already strained resources. Other settings for intervention ranging from infusing soap operas and teen music and magazines with preventive messages, to use of the existing public health network to diffuse relevant information, may supplement basic reliance on continuous public school sex education.( Edwards, 1990,p,91)Sex education in Canadian society is addressed within the formal educational system. The content and the role of the education system, as it pertains to issues of sexuality, is a matter of debate with in the Canadian Muslim Community. Ways, in which sex education should be approached and discussed, especially with respect to Muslim women, is a point of particular contention in Canada.Public Schools across Canada include sex education as part of their curriculum. Sex education courses are age specific and incorporate biological, moral and emotional dimensions. Boys and girls are taught the same material, including description   of male and female anatomy; mental emotional and social aspects of pubescent change; the risks of unprotected sex; methods of contraception; varying conceptions of sexual orienta tion ( heterosexuality, homosexuality, bisexuality, trans-sexuality); and social attitudes toward sexuality, such as gender discrimination. Canadian public schools, although sensitive to the religious considerations of various traditions, limit discussions relating to religion and impart the same material to all students.While public schools provide sex education most Islamic schools in Canada, both weekend and full-time do not. As yet there are no standardized courses or materials available on sex education for Muslim in Canada. Some members of the Canadian Muslim Community fear that sex education will encourage sexual experimentation amongst Muslim youth. Recently, however, Canadian Muslims have began to recognize that educating youth in matters related to sexuality is not the same as allowing sexual activity.( Afsanh suad, 2007,p, 408)Canadian Muslim children are continuously exposed to media laden with sexual overtones, which many believe compromise their childrens Islamic valu es. The widespread perception regarding sexuality within the Muslim community maintains that sexual education is necessary to dispel messages communicated by the mass media. In this regard, sex education taught in public schools is considered insufficient, as it does not project Islamic perceptions of sexuality. From the Canadian Muslim perspective, matters concerning sex utility should be taught within the parameters of Islam.Unfortunately, comprehensive sexuality education in the school is not a wide-spread phenomenon. U.S. society tends to devote much time and energy to coping with unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and related problems once they have occurred, but very little to helping people prevent them in the first place. Some experts believe that only a minority of young people in the United States receive adequate sex education in public schools. Most are exposed to scattered presentations on basic reproductive facts- the plumbing, so to speak, of human sex uality. Since only a small number of parents educate their children about sex, the result is many sexually vulnerable citizens. (Jeffrey, 1986, p, 383)It is hard to understand why Americans fallen so short in this area since for years surveys have indicated that most Americans favor sex education in the public schools. Perhaps it is because there is so much disagreement about the content of sexuality education, how and by whom it should be taught, and whose values should be conveyed.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Postoperative Recovery Advantages in Patients Undergoing Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery under Regional Anesthesia. by Suri. Article Review

Postoperative Recovery Advantages in Patients Undergoing Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery under Regional Anesthesia. by Suri. Article Review This review seeks to examine the article by Suri et al (2010) titled â€Å"Postoperative Recovery Advantages in Patients Undergoing Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery under Regional Anesthesia.† The purpose of this review is to investigate some of new insights that the article brings into the field of medical surgery. Additionally, the review examines the findings of the study and how it can help to improve or change the practice in health institutions, especially among medical professionals dealing with surgery. There are intriguing debated about the advantages of using regional anesthesia during minimal invasive parathyroidectom. In evaluating the extent to which general and regional anesthesia succeed as a method of conducting surgery, Suri et al (2010) assessed the post operative recovery advantages in these two techniques. Previous studies have established that carrying out parathyroidectomy under local or regional anesthesia using sedation has significant advantages, includ ing less postoperative nausea, pain, vomiting, and opiod analgesic requirements. Although these studies have found inextricable evidence suggesting the advantages of general anesthesia, recent studies indicate that it is possible to undergo these surgeries without inducement of general anesthesia.Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on â€Å"Postoperative Recovery Advantages in Patients Undergoing Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery under Regional Anesthesia.† by Suri. Article Review specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Suri et al (2010) purposed to discover some of advantages of regional versus general anesthesia. From the research article, the researchers found that patients undergoing parathyroid surgery under superficial cervical plexus block are more advantageous compared to when undergoing general anesthetic procedures. The study brings on board new insights to the theory and practice of medical surgery. Th e study suggests that patients undergoing regional anesthetic procedures usually experience fast rate of recovery after parathyroid surgery. The study’s findings confirm the results of prior researches, which have found that patients undergoing the general anesthesia experience quick recovery and get back to normal life faster compared to the ones undergoing general anesthesia. While some studies have suggested that patients were satisfied with both general and regional anesthesia with sedation, Suri et al (2010) found that the pain reduction was eminent in procedures where patients undergoing parathyroid surgery under regional anesthesia. The article shows that they consulted other existing literatures, which have investigated the advantages of applying general and regional anesthesia procedures. This is seen from a number of referral studies, which undertook to examine various anesthetic procedures during surgery. The sound and precise background developed by the researches gives a formidable platform to understand the subject under review. Although it is arguable that the article used previous studies to ground its theory, a review of the article shows that the researchers did not give the study a wide scope of coverage. It is critical for a researcher to set off a study from an extensive an extensive background, which forms the momentum for the study. According to the study, Suri et al (2010) found no significant difference between the general and the regional anesthesia procedures in terms of some of postoperative advantages , including the timing of pain, narcotic pain medication, and incidence of nausea, voice hoarseness, vomiting, or swallowing problems.Advertising Looking for critical writing on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The study reveals that although both anesthesia procedures involved in general and regional techniques had far-reaching postoperative ad vantages, the Suri et al (2010) found that patients undergoing bilateral superficial cervical plexus block recorded incidents of sharp pains. In conclusion, the research article by Suri et al (2010) utilized a relatively large sample that allows for generalization of the results. The confirmation of previous studies’ findings serves to show that the study remain in conformity with the research standards. Reference Suri, K. B., Hunter, C. W., Davidov, T., Anderson, M. B., Dombrovskiy, V., Trooskin, S. Z. (2010). Postoperative Recovery Advantages in Patients Undergoing Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery under Regional Anesthesia. Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, 14(1).

Sunday, October 20, 2019

3 Reasons to Ditch Your Novels Prologue

3 Reasons to Ditch Your Novels Prologue 3 Reasons to Ditch Your Novels Prologue 3 Reasons to Ditch Your Novels Prologue By Maeve Maddox The prologue is a legitimate story-telling device, but many readers admit that when they see the word Prologue, they skip at once to the page that begins with the words Chapter One. Sometimes a prologue is the ideal way to present information essential to the readers understanding of the story. Mystery writers, for example, often begin with a prologue written from the killers point of view, or perhaps that of the killers first victim. On the other hand, such a scene can be written as Chapter One as Martha Grimes does it in The Dirty Duck. Writers of historical fiction may wish to provide background information to orient the reader in an unfamiliar period. Writers of fantasy or sci-fi may write a prologue to equip the reader with unfamiliar assumptions held by the inhabitants of the strange world theyre about to enter. Too often, however, what some writers call a prologue is undigested back story, mere scene-setting, or what should be Chapter One. Ditch your prologue if 1. it seems boring even to you and you can hardly wait to get to Chapter One. 2. its a lengthy narrative of back story that could more effectively be doled out in small bits as the story progresses. 3. all it does is create atmosphere without having much to do with the story. Reconsider that Prologue (Update: link no longer active) Prologues and Epilogues Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Fiction Writing category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:7 Types of Narrative ConflictThe Writing Process3 Types of Essays Are Models for Professional Writing Forms

Saturday, October 19, 2019

American Diplomacy in Vietnam Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

American Diplomacy in Vietnam - Term Paper Example The diplomatic interests in Vietnam dates back to after the Second World War, when the Americans quickly moved to block the spread of communism in the South East Asia region. Japan was strategically located not only for trade interests, but its deviation from the larger Asian political and trade dynamics meant the country was not prone to the communism ideologies that were spreading fast in the Asian region. Japan was thus used as a strategic location to help in curbing the spread of communism from Russia and China, towards the South East Asia region. 2 This implies foreign diplomatic approaches in the Indochina region by the Americans were mainly designed to curb the spread of communism in the region, rather than to promote trade; the Asian countries were a bit poor, and with little trade links with the outer world as Schaller argues. The American interests were therefore based on blocking communism in Indochina region, rather than policies to help in developing Vietnam and other So uth East Asia region. ... oes not elaborate on how the ethical and moral concepts were being evaluated in this case, the actions of supporting a Junta in a country deep in civil crises raised doubts over the national interests of the American government in Vietnam. Kissinger critically elaborates American interests and their conflict with moral authority, which led to involvement of the American armies in the Vietnamese war, and critically tries to investigate the policies under President Nixon after inheriting the war in 1969. The conflict with moral principles is observed in serious critics that resulted after the war to challenge this mission.3 However, Kissinger notes that the Americans were fighting a vague war, and no ultimate answers concerning American interests have been clearly outlined.4 All the same, the article does not provide elaborate response by other nations involved in this crisis in the Indochina region. The article critically takes the Vietnam War on a moral approach in describing reasons behind American involvement in the war, and its affects. In addition to the interests that the American government had in Vietnam, the war presented a case of a badly prepared army in a foreign land to fight for unknown causes. After the collapse of the South Vietnam in April 30 1975, although having achieved a resounding victory over the battle field, the Vietnamese were holding Unites States over promised reconstruction aid amounting to over $ 4 billion.5 Though the Vietnamese people had worn the war, there was still a bargain to make in pressing the United States government to inject funds for reconstruction. The aim of this aid by the United States government could be read suspiciously. Either the government had some interests to promote in Vietnam, to which they had promised massive

Job description Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Job description - Essay Example responsible for the management of social media sites by tracking and monitoring the companys presence in the social media including Facebook, Twitter, Google plus and others. He or she ensures that only valuable and engaging information is shared to the social sites. He or she monitors the changing social media trends to ensure that the company stays on top of its competition. He or she bears the responsibility for designing and writing protocols, report forms for cases and consent forms used in clinical trials. He or she approves the Ethics committee, develops recruitment strategies for the increment of patient randomization into trials, and manages clinical trials. He or she ensures compliance of the Good clinical practice (GCP) by providing training during start-ups and initiation meetings for the clinical trials. He or she is responsible for the planning and implementation of activities necessary for conducting and monitoring clinical trials. He or she coordinates monitoring of trials by selecting and managing qualified personnel. He or she keeps CVs and training materials for each protocol, and also submits documents that are necessary for initiating the study including CVs and Food and drug administration forms. He or she identifies audit procedures and ensures that only clean data is entered into the clinical database in the appropriate time (Clinical research manager). Social media director can work with the head of human resource department in management of staff within the company. The social media director is responsible for the identification of the companys social media staff and thus may work in the Human resource department as recruitment manager or in the interviewing panel. The human resource department is responsible for personnel activities including the staffing, development, training, rewarding and performance evaluation in every department of the company. The social media director works with the human resource department to ensure that

Friday, October 18, 2019

Alexander and Hellenism cultures Research Paper

Alexander and Hellenism cultures - Research Paper Example This essay discusses the influence of Alexander the Great on Hellenistic society, economy, culture, and arts. Alexander’s Life and War When Alexander the Great’s father, Philip of Macedon, died in 336 B.C., he immediately occupied the throne. Through his mentor Aristotle, Alexander largely appreciated Greek culture. He was fascinated by the Homeric epics. He was inspired by the heroic achievements and determination of the characters, especially Achilles (Pollitt 1986, 271). But Alexander, just like these Homeric heroes, also possessed remarkable leadership and military abilities which he inherited from his father. Alexander also took over his father’s major state plan, which was the ultimate defeat of Persia. This mission fuelled the daring character of Alexander. Alexander was a student of Isocrates, an orator who supported a campaign against Persia to unify the Greeks within a single objective (Burn 1948, 11-12). Philip had planned to defend his ownership of Gr eece by preventing the advance of Persia to Asia Minor; but his son, who was very ambitious, sought to invade the whole Persian kingdom. Leading a massive army in 334 B.C., Alexander passed through Asia Minor, and finally moved forward to India. Because of his excellent military, leadership, and strategy skills, Alexander’s armed forces had built an empire which extended from Greece to India. After Alexander’s reign, the world had never been the same again. His adventures and conquests introduced Eastern and Western cultures to each other (Curtis 2000, 66). Alexander himself contributed to this massive change, whether purposely or unintentionally. He married a Persian woman, encouraged the intermarriage between his soldiers and Asian women, and enlisted Persian soldiers into his army. He built city-states in Asia, where Greek immigrants intermarried with the local peoples (Perry 2012, 616). But, as argued by Pollitt (1986), even though Alexander was not able to bring a ll the peoples and cultures together in a world-state, his conquests drove the world in a new path, toward a union of diverse populations and the mixing together of cultures. Alexander’s conquest was indeed the driving force for the advancement of the Hellenistic culture all over the Near East and western Mediterranean. His conquest also created the foundation for the establishment of Christianity, the Roman Empire, and other major features of Western history. The Influence of the Expedition of Alexander the Great on Hellenistic Culture The era of cosmopolitan culture and global interaction emerged after the semi-Hellenized Philip of Macedon had tore down the self-rule of city-states, and Alexander had invaded the Persian kingdom. In 332 B.C.E., Alexander conquered Palestine, then Egypt; and since then the situation of the Jewish people was transformed. The objective as well as the impact of Alexander’s achievements was to bring the East and the West together intellect ually and politically. Nationalistic sentiments were barely shown by the peoples of Eastern societies, except for the Jewish and Persian people (Skelton & Dell 2009, 93, 26). Nationalism was growing weaker among the Greeks. Alexander aspired to create a remarkable mixture of knowledge in a global empire, which, through a grouping of local cultures and racial superiorities in a bigger and wider political sphere, should promote arts and knowledge and spread the Hellenic

Investment appraisal and NPV analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Investment appraisal and NPV analysis - Essay Example Capital Budgeting is the other name for Investment Appraisal. Every firm, company or enterprise is faced with the decision about which investment opportunities they are to choose from all the options available. The primary task of any enterprise is to maximize the wealth of its shareholders. So taking the right decision at right time is one of the key roles of any company. It is required for the profitability and sustainability of the company. More often than not every enterprise has to invest in assets, mainly capital assets, so that they get returns out of it which they can utilize either to reinvest again or to pay back its owners (Peterson & Fabozzi, 2002, p.3). Investments in assets can be of both short-term and long-term types but every firm is primarily concerned with long-term investment requiring huge amounts of money. Thus, decision on capital budgeting have a long-term effect on the performance of the firm and are critical to the firm’s success or failure. Financial appraisal or investment appraisal of a proposed investment in a firm is one of the key steps in capital budgeting and quite complex too (Dayananda, 2002, p.2). Thus proper valuation of the proposed investment projects of a company is required before coming to the conclusion about which investment proposal to accept. Some of the tools or techniques used by firms for investment appraisal are: a) Net Present Value (NPV), b) Internal Rate of Return (IRR), c) Profitability Index (PI), d) Accounting Rate of Return, e) Payback Period, etc (Shapiro, 2008, p.33). Of these NPV and IRR techniques are mostly used by companies for investments which are capital intensive and Pay Back Period technique, which is more of a traditional technique and mostly used by companies which are less capital intensive (Bedi, 2005, p.14). Now, NPV being one of the most widely used conventional tools for investment appraisal uses the Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) technique for the evaluation of proposed investments. But it can always be argued about DCF technique used in NPV analysis as being the effective and adequate technique and its relevance with business environment in reality. NPV option is always questionable when uncertainty is involved in the real business environment. Once an investment has already begun, it is very difficult to revise the investment decisions of a company using NPV analysis for its investment project appraisal. Thus, NPV analysis has its own merits and demerits in the evaluation of investment projects which have been discussed further in this study. A comparative study of two other alternative appraisal techniques to NPV is also discussed in this study. Further, what can be a more realistic approach to investment appraisal has also been discussed in details. Investment Appraisal Approaches Different approaches are adopted by different companies for evaluating their investment proposals in order to come to a decision about which investment proposal will be best for the company. Out of the many, Pay Back Period technique is one of the traditional approaches in this regard. NPV analysis and IRR techniques are commonly used investment evaluation techniques which uses the DCF technique. Risk-adjusted Present Value (RPV) analysis is one of the recently used investment appraisal technique which takes into account the risk factors involved in the investment valuation due to uncertainties present in real business environment. The concept of break-even analysis in investment is applied through the Pay Back Period method of investment appraisal technique (Banerjee, 1990, p.317). This method takes into consideration the fact that it is important to identify the recovery period of investment made originally by a company. Pay Back Period can be calculated from the following relation: Pay

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Strategic Analysis and Choice Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words - 2

Strategic Analysis and Choice - Essay Example This report highlights the changing strategic intent of DuPont and describes how its recent strategic evolution defies certain industry norms and brings measurable, positive outcomes that supersede competition. Strategic intent is defined as â€Å"capturing the essence of winning, is stable over time, and sets goals that deserve personal effort and commitment† in order to reach specific strategic goals (, 2010, p.2). Strategic intent deals with the different planning mechanisms required to reach corporate goals and outlines the specific objectives that the strategic leadership desires to achieve. Intentions identify how leaders hope to position the business for the long-term to deliver value to all stakeholders and shareholders whilst at the same time focusing on growth or sustainability to ensure ongoing profitability. The environment in which DuPont is forced to work is marked by uncertainty and considerable risk that comes from market factors, many of which are beyond the control of strategists at the company. These include specific pressures that come from global demand decreases along with rising costs in areas of raw materials, energy and transportation (, 2010). These externalities impact many different issues ranging from human resources and staffing, to cost control, to even research and development needs based on fluctuating market conditions. Strategic intent at DuPont, when facing these market conditions, involves understanding the environment that the company serves and limiting excess in areas of financial cost reduction and operational management. This industry has also seen massive decline in demand for certain products, such as its Coatings and Color Technologies business segment, therefore buyers have been destocking their inventories in response to the global recession (DuPont, 2008). All of these factors have influenced a

Mechanical Dynamic Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Mechanical Dynamic - Research Paper Example Designers now face a higher challenge of product development and thus they require better tools and equipment for testing. Mechanical dynamics is one important and useful factor today. Dynamic mechanical was established initially as a simple heating and air conditioning company which started out in Sacramento. The major requirement was to make its customers happy through the use of it. It started out in 2003 with one operation which basically led to its growth. It was used in the commercial sector widely. Michael V the owner of dynamic mechanical was basically associated with construction industry. It started off with majorly the heating and cooling equipments followed by training the employee to work in order to meet the requirements. The system is required to work at peak efficiency. The technology used for testing, analyzing dynamics of mechanical structure and modeling is of high importance. The modes of vibration here play a very important role as it is the major link between th e testing and the method used for analysis. There are basically four options and alternatives which are taken , taking forces and motion in mind. Design is one of the major concerns faced. Styling of the machinery is another important aspect which needs to be in mind which includes the sizes and shapes which are of great importance. The entire layout matters not only the outer part. The outward appearance is not only important the entire mechanical system is of great importance. Structure should be such which can withstand forces and which can also transmit forces; a static analysis is carried out to make sure that the forces are strong. The suspension spring of the automobile should have enough strength to support the body, engine along with the weight. In order to have proper motion there are rotating and moving part which are setup in the system. There are some problems which are known as the kinematics. There are many shafts, pulleys, chains, cams, rotating gears and many other instruments which will go through many changes they will have to develop major relative motions so that the engine can run properly. The designer has to make sure that the structure go through proper affects of forces and motion, this thing depends a lot on the dynamic environment however there are many factors which affect this which include the forces and motion which come together and that finds out some major problems which include the problem of vibration and noise (Measurement and the analysis of the dynamics). These problems which are caused by the inertial forces along the structure behavior of the structure and these problems are extremely difficult to solve. The dynamic structure is divided into two classes for the purpose of modeling the dynamics. These two classes include the elastic and rigid bodies. There are many elastic structures whose dynamics are simplified to a very large extent through significant loss of accuracy with major assumptions that they are assembled t ogether through springs and damper elements in a very rigid way. Straightforward manner is used to analyze the system through the use of Newton’s second law which is crucial for masses in the system. Modes of vibration cannot be observed physically and they can not be identified by major people. Linear dynamic model also plays an important role here and it is defined through this. Mathematical model and its development depicts an important link which is between these modes of vibration and the elements of the modeling

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Strategic Analysis and Choice Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words - 2

Strategic Analysis and Choice - Essay Example This report highlights the changing strategic intent of DuPont and describes how its recent strategic evolution defies certain industry norms and brings measurable, positive outcomes that supersede competition. Strategic intent is defined as â€Å"capturing the essence of winning, is stable over time, and sets goals that deserve personal effort and commitment† in order to reach specific strategic goals (, 2010, p.2). Strategic intent deals with the different planning mechanisms required to reach corporate goals and outlines the specific objectives that the strategic leadership desires to achieve. Intentions identify how leaders hope to position the business for the long-term to deliver value to all stakeholders and shareholders whilst at the same time focusing on growth or sustainability to ensure ongoing profitability. The environment in which DuPont is forced to work is marked by uncertainty and considerable risk that comes from market factors, many of which are beyond the control of strategists at the company. These include specific pressures that come from global demand decreases along with rising costs in areas of raw materials, energy and transportation (, 2010). These externalities impact many different issues ranging from human resources and staffing, to cost control, to even research and development needs based on fluctuating market conditions. Strategic intent at DuPont, when facing these market conditions, involves understanding the environment that the company serves and limiting excess in areas of financial cost reduction and operational management. This industry has also seen massive decline in demand for certain products, such as its Coatings and Color Technologies business segment, therefore buyers have been destocking their inventories in response to the global recession (DuPont, 2008). All of these factors have influenced a

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Management in context Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Management in context - Essay Example 1).† I have noted that the explanation presented by the author for the unique theory makes it all common sense in management practice. I find the author’s labels on the third theory as a proactive one suitable, because it brings up a new way of establishing the link. I concur with the author that in management practice, accumulated academic knowledge can be used as an engagement tool rather than applied as a theory. Case studies are used to expose how a proactive theory can work when managers engage academic knowledge within their management practice activities to improve their performance (Ghoshal, 2005; pg. 1). The case studies shows how scholarship applied together with academic theory in the management practice of inquiry is relational and provides opportunities for evidence based management. The implication of my observations is in relation to the fact that using a proactive approach in management practice creates a link between academic theory and relational skills of managers. Surprises in JA 2 The author has taken an in – depth analysis of how the application of management theories affects organizations business culture. I can observe that according to the author, business schools have enhanced the development of such management theories. ... am surprised with the author’s comments that academic research, which studies the conduct of organizations and management, has generated serious negative effects on the practice of management. I am also surprised that the author seems to be suggesting that graduates from business schools lack common sense of moral responsibility. The author has used the pretense of knowledge and the application of system – based gloomy vision to explain his assertions (Ramsey, 2011; pg. 82). The observations I have made in this article has serious implications in relation to the belief that business schools ought to teach excellent management theories and should not be blamed for negative aspects of business culture. The Evidence The author has used Mike’s learning and Kieran is learning to show the application of academic theory within management practices. The two articles show three elements of academic theory when engaged in management practice (Ramsey, 2011; pg. 12). The ele ments revealed in the learning’s include â€Å"an engagement with ideas, a practice of inquiry, and an emphasis on moment-by-moment relating within practice (Ramsey, 2011; pg. 23)†. The writer has used suggestions from other authors to show that the most significant aspect of this link pertains to the place of the evidence that is applied in the academic theory. The writer quotes other authors to strengthen his arguments for the application of evidence-based management. This management approach places decision-making initiatives on evidence that can be gathered and assessed. The author argues that action analysis tool known as Provocative Theory Cycle of Inquiry is critical to the engagement approach in the practice of management. The author has presented information that the pretense of knowledge

Monday, October 14, 2019

Ap American History Essay Example for Free

Ap American History Essay 1. â€Å"The opponents of the annexation of Texas and the Mexican War attacked slavery as the root cause of expansion, but in fact it was no more important than other causes.† Assess the validity of this statement, using the documents and your knowledge of U.S. history from 1820-1860 to support your answer. During the early-mid part of the 19th century (mainly 1820-1860) Americans objected many things they didn’t like. Taxes, the government, even presidents were some of the rejections of the people. But the one thing the people did not like during this time period was the annexation of Texas and the Mexican War. â€Å"The opponents of the annexation of Texas and the Mexican War attacked slavery as the root cause for expansion.† However, slavery was not the only reason America sought for expansion. Other than slavery, people wanted to expand America because they believed in Manifest Destiny (an idea during the 19th century in which people believed that America should expand over the entirety of North America) or because they feared that Texas was an independent state, even the Gold Rush in California (1848-1855) contributed to the expansion of America. Even though â€Å"the opponents of the annexation of Texas and the Mexican War attacked slavery as the root cause of expansion† the idea of Manifest Destiny, fear, and the Gold Rush were other important causes for expansion. As you may know, slavery was the key reason as to why people wanted to expand America, especially southerners. Abolitionists (people who were against slavery) did not like the idea that the expansion of America was based on slavery, but it was. In Document B it states, â€Å"Texas†¦will strengthen ‘the peculiar institution’ of the South, and open a new and vast field for slavery.† Many southerners wanted Texas to be annexed to America because it would allow the south to have more slave states (states that allowed slavery). However, people feared that if Texas was annexed, slavery would expand everywhere in America, and they did not want that. Document C also talks about slavery. It states that, â€Å"The slave population of America†¦must be increased.† Texas is annexed; it will benefit the South in moving some slaves out of the â€Å"superabundant slave population† and will ultimately improve the living conditions of slaves because they wou ldn’t be as crowded. You see, slavery was an important cause for expansion, but the idea of manifest destiny was just as important. The idea of manifest destiny came about the early part of the 19th century. People who believed in manifest destiny believed that America should be able to expand to the entirety of North America. In Document A, Thomas Hart Benson says, â€Å"†¦the American population has begun to extend itself to the Oregon [Territory]†¦I say to them all, Go on!† People like Mr. Benson want America to expand because they want the world to show the world how prosperous America is. In Document D, John L. O’Sullivan said, â€Å"A population will soon be in actual occupation of California.† In this document, Sullivan was talking about the California Gold Rush (1848- 1855). Since many people on the eastern side of America have been hearing about the sightings of gold in California, many people decided to venture out to California to collect some of it. Thousands of people rushed to California that it was given the term â€Å"gold rush†. The gold rush allowed America to expand itself into California, which was supported by the manifest destiny believers. Document E also talks about the ideas of manifest destiny. It states, â€Å"We ought to have the Bay of San Francisco! Why? Because†¦I think†¦our people [should move there]!† The author of Document E obviously believed in the idea of manifest destiny because he wants to see people in San Francisco, which is in California. The manifest destiny idea helped encourage people to have more pride in their nation, which allowed them to expand from the East coast of America to the West. However, not every idea of expansionism was happy. Others people wanted to expand America because of fear. In Document F it states, â€Å"None can fail to see the danger to our safety and future peace if Texas remains an independent state, or becomes an ally or dependency of some foreign nation more powerful than herself.† After Texas won its independence from Mexico in 1835, Texas could not cede the American Union because it needed to enter America with a free state (a state with no slavery) because of the Missouri Compromise (the Missouri Compromise was passed in 1820 in which stated that there would be no slavery in the Louisiana Territory above the 36th parallel). Since there were no other states to enter with Texas, Texas had to remain as an independent state for about ten years (1835- 1845). During that time, people urged for a state to enter as a free state with Texas because, since Texas was not a part of America, it could do whatever it wanted. Things like joining a d ifferent nation or starting a war with America were options that were available for Texas. That is why many people wanted Texas to join as quickly as possible. Thankfully, Texas joined with Iowa in 1845. You see, slavery was not the only cause for expansion in America. The idea of Manifest Destiny and fear allowed the expansion of America, even the Gold Rush encouraged people to settle in California, allowing America to expand from the east coast to the west.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Abraham Lincolns Abuse of Power :: American America History

Abraham Lincoln's Abuse of Power Lincoln's use of executive authority during the civil war is many times illegal and unjust; although his issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation may seem justified, Lincoln blatantly abused his power regarding civil rights. He did things like institute an unfair draft, suspend Constitutional rights, allocate military spending without Congress, and institute emancipation. Although some may justify these actions, they stomped on the Constitution. Lincoln found powers in the constitutional clause making him "Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several states." He said that because of this clause, he had the right to use any means necessary to defeat the enemy. With this justification, he issued many executive orders before Congress even convened. Lincoln summoned the militia, ordered a blockade of the Confederacy ports, expanded the regular army beyond its legal limit, and directed government funds before congressional allocation. of these powers were granted to him in the Constitution. Lincoln also abused his power with the draft. Prior to the draft, the Union depended on the states to fill assigned quotas with volunteers. But then Lincoln instituted a new draft. By its terms, all men between the ages of 20 and 45 were liable to military service. However, any man who was called for the draft could avoid it by hiring a substitute or paying $300 dollars to the government. Many groups rightfully denounced these acts, called the conscription acts, as a rich man's law. Indeed, many wealthy men were able to bribe poorer men into taking their place in The most blatant abuse of Lincoln's power was his suspension of habeas corpus. The suspension of this constitutional guarantee, by which a person could not be imprisoned indefinitely without being charges with some specific crime, around much opposition throughout the country. Although Lincoln himself made no concentrated efforts to suppress political oppositions, the repeal of habeas corpus enabled overzealous civil and military authorities to imprison thousands of people who were vocal in their opposition to the war against the South. During the war, in the case Ex parte Merryman, Chief Justice Taney ordered Lincoln to grant a writ of habeas corpus to a Southern agitator who had been arbitrarily jailed by military authorities in Maryland. Lincoln ignored the order. After the war, in the case Ex parte Milligan, the Supreme Court ruled that president could not suspend habeas corpus without the consent of Congress.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Prejudice in To Kill A Mocking Bird Essay -- essays research papers

The novel to Kill a Mockingbird, is about a young girl named Jean Louise Finch. She is also known as Scout. Scout experiences different events that change her life. Scout and her brother Jem are being raised by their father, a lawyer named Atticus and a housekeeper named Calpumia in a small town called Maycomb. In the South racism and discriminations towards black was a big issue . The story begins when Scout and her brother, become fascinated with a mysterious man known as Boo Radley. Scout and Jem meet boy named Dill who comes from Mississippi to spend the summers there. Jem quickly tells the story of Boo Radley to young Dill. Boo Radley, a man in his thirties who has not been seen outside of his home in years, mainly because of upbringing. They have an impression of Mr. Radley as being this large ugly and evil man. Then comes the accusation of Tom Robinson. Scout?s father,Atticus, becomes a defense attorney for a black man, Tom Robinson, who is falsely accused of raping a white wo man. This has a big affect on Scout. During this trial she gets teased by school-mates because her fat...

Friday, October 11, 2019

Cleaning Human’s Mess In The Waters Essay

One can not perfectly estimate how long it will actually take to clean up the oceans polluted by oil. It always depends on the techniques used, the efficiency of the people working on it, how often workers clean the oceans and the budget alloted for the clean-up. Cleaning the ocean is the less difficult part, but expects the recovery to take more than 15 years. If cleaning is the only issue, then 15 to 20 years will definitely be enough, given that all procedures are effective, all workers are responsible and serious with what they are doing and all alloted budgets are used directly to fund the oil spill clean up. The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill into the Limelight We can take the Exxon Valdez oil spill as an example. On March 24, 1989, one of the most shocking and seemingly-unrecoverable environmental disasters happened in Prince William Sound, Alaska, United States. This occurrence is said to be among the world’s largest oil spills when it comes to how much oil spill is released to the waters. Prince William Sounds is a place which isn’t easy to access. Because of its remote location, cleaning it was difficult. Workers who need to clean the waters had to ride in boats and helicopters to reach the place (Chandler and Streissguth, p. 5). What needed to be cleaned was 11,000 square miles of ocean or 28,000 square kilometers of water. There were 40. 9 million liters of oil, or 10. 8 million U. S gallons of Prudhoe Bay crude oil spilled into the sea. Cleaning up seemed impossible and people were hopeless, but there were bigger things at stake like lives of millions of seabirds, seals, sea otters and salmon which belonged to the sea and depended on such habitat for survival (Chandler and Streissguth, p. 6). There were indeed a lot of delaying tactics in terms of cleaning up the Exxon Valdez oil spill since it was the first time America was confronted with such a big disaster. No one was at least prepared for it. The responses to cleaning up were slow and generally inadequate. The shoreline of the waters was definitely destroyed. There was a dramatic decline in the microbial population. What were needed to start the cleanup were challenged by response management, but was in time attended by 85 aircrafts, 1,400 vessels and 11,000 personnel. Having been armed with all these, the clean up of the Exxon Valdez oil spill was started in April 1989 (Wells, Butler and Hughes, p. 217). Cleaning up oil spill can indeed be cleaned up within 15 to 20 years because considering the volume of oil spilled into the ocean by Exxon Valdez, five months was enough to partially clean the ocean and let the government stop the people from cleaning the oceans up. If cleaning up continued, the health of the workers will definitely be jeopardized. What Alaska did was to stop the cleaning in September (which was started in April of the same year) and waited for winter instead. Responses resumed in the next two years, where cleaning up was at its height during the summers. Winters were skipped because the weather was sure to help with the clean up, too. Alaska is known for more than frequent winter storms. This time, winter storms are a blessing in disguise because these were capable of removing the oil which accumulated in the shorelines. Even sub-surface oils were removed from the ocean, too. By summer, cleaning up with personnel and procedures resumed (Wells, Butler and Hughes, p. 218). Human efforts and the help from the environment was enough to clean the Exxon Valdez oil spill in approximately three years. After the efforts and responses from women, it becomes the turn of the environment. This actually happened when 378 of the 587 segments of shorelines were treated through the application of bioremediation alone. It didn’t take too long a time until cleaning the oil spill only required simpler techniques like bioremediation (as mentioned earlier), manual clean up and limited use of equipment (Wells, Butler and Hughes, p. 316). If this is how long it takes for a great disaster to be cleaned up, then how can one say that 15 to 20 years is not enough? Let it be a Lesson Learned It won’t necessarily take 15 to 20 years to clean up the ocean. It may reach that long enough, though, if cleaning up is still done irresponsibly. Clean-up attempts are dangerous. In fact, cleaning up may even be more destructive than the oil spill itself because physical methods and chemicals are needed to eradicate the oil from the waters. If the amount is incorrect or the physical method is done improperly, then further damage can be caused, thereby delaying the cleaning up process and recovery (Alvord and Alvord, p. 77). Oil penetrated deeply into the sea. The spilled oil stays fresh for a couple of years. In no time, it returns back to the surface. Before it even reaches the surface, the oil should be taken away from the ocean bed because it can kill nearly animals once it reaches the water’s surface. This is a concern of the people who work in cleaning up the oceans, which is why the response in oil spills is relatively fast since the Exxon Valdez caused trauma to a lot of people (Alvord and Alvord, p. 77). Because of the effects of oil on marine life and the quality of sea water, people are alerted – from government, be it local or national, to local residents near the shorelines of oceans. This alert alone is enough to warn everybody about the adverse effects of oil spill. The Exxon Valdez serves as a living example to help people stop the harmful things they do to the environment. The elimination of harmful acts will surely help in reducing the required clean-up years. Whatever it is that takes 15 to 20 years is not the cleaning procedures at all, but the long-term effects of the spilled oil. Millions of marine creatures are killed and it will take decades before reproduction is active and healthy again. The food we get from the water becomes questionable while tourism and economic depression is experienced.

Thursday, October 10, 2019


To Kill a Mockingbird Project – Yen Vo and Eve Chen Foreshadowing – One form of foreshadowing in this novel is when Scout finds the bubble gum in the tree (page 44) . This event foreshadows the interaction between Jem, Scout and Boo, as Boo is putting those presents in the tree for Jem and Scout to find. Another instance of foreshadowing is when Jem finds his pants mended for him when he goes back to get them on page 76. We find out they were fixed for him afterwards on page 78 and when Jem states that â€Å"They’d been sewed up. Not like a lady sewed ‘em. -â€Å" ; this foreshadows the care of Boo Radley for Jem and Scout . We see later on, during the fire, that Boo cares for Scout when he places the blanket upon her. The last instance of foreshadowing would be when Scout is eavesdropping on one of Atticus’s conversations. Atticus was aware that she was listening and allowed for it to happen for quite some time before he calls her out and tells her to go to bed (page 117). This foreshadows the trial plot. Initial Incident – Boo Radley plot: I found that the initial incident within the Boo Radley plot was when Dill was curious about Boo, as it leads to further interactions with the Radley place and the climax (when the children are interacting physically with the Radley place). Trial plot: The initial incident within the trial plot would be when Atticus and Uncle Jack are conversing. This leads to the conviction of Tom and the tension between him and Bob. In Medias Res- I believe that the novel does not begin in medias res, because it does not begin in the middle of a significant event. It begins, however, with Scout explaining to us the situation and thus moving into a flashback of prior events. Motivation – I think that, in this novel, Scout’s biggest motivation is her Father. You really see her character develop as Atticus begins to tell her more. At the beginning, she was very blunt. She didn’t have much care for others or realization of her effect on others. This gradually changes throughout the book as Atticus begins to imply more about what’s right and what’s wrong. He tells her to often be mindful of others and their way of living as well as what they provide for her. For example, he tells Scout to â€Å"think about what Cal does for [her], and mind her,† which has an effect on Scout later as she no longer treats Calpurnia with disrespect or in a rude, ill-mannered way. This, among other implications, leads to a great development of Scout and thus shows the reader that Atticus is, indeed, her biggest form of motivation. Indeterminate resolution – I believe that in the Boo Radley plot there is an indeterminate resolution. I think this, because Boo Radley eventually â€Å"came out† after all that Scout, Jem, and Dill had done. Regardless to the fact that all three of these children were responsible for him coming out, Scout had been the only person to have met Boo Radley, but never saw him again afterwards. It was pleasing to see that Scout had finally been able to meet him, but will never see again nor will Jem or Dill ever meet, and this makes the resolution indeterminate and thus, the reader must decide on their own whether is was a sad, or a happy ending. Resolution – In my opinion, the resolution is satisfying, because after the development of the plot and the issues and questions that had risen from the story were resolved. Also, the solutions were realistic, regardless that they were not as expected or to my preference, but the realistic ideas enhance the story. For example, when Bob was trying to harm Jem and Scout, Scout was able to meet Boo Radley and that links the two storylines and resolves the Boo Radley plot. Setting – There are two passages in which I saw that the setting was significant to more than the physical aspect. One was : Maycomb was an old town, but it was a tired old town when I first knew it. In rainy weather the streets turned to red slop; grass grew on the sidewalks, the courthouse sagged in the square. Somehow, it was hotter then: a black dog suffered on a summer’s day; bony mules hitched to Hoover carts flicked flies in the sweltering shade of the live oaks on the square. Men’s stiff collars wilted by nine in the morning. Ladies bathed before noon, after their three-o’clock naps, and by nightfall were like soft teacakes with frostings of sweat and sweet talcum. because it reveals much more to us about the area, rather than just what eyes might see. We get a feeling of isolation and dreariness from the description. The other would be: The back of the Radley house was less inviting than the front: a ramshackle porch ran the width of the house; there were two doors and two dark windows between the doors. Instead of a column, a rough two-by-four supported one end of the roof. An old Franklin stove sat in a corner of the porch; above it a hat-rack mirror caught the moon and shone eerily. because it evokes a sense of darkness and fear, which is represented further as the children are leaving. Suspense – Three suspenseful moments, I believe, would include when Scout states â€Å" There was more to it than he knew, but I ecided not to tell him. † (page 50) This is suspenseful, because it leaves the reader wondering what could Scout be talking about. What was it that she wouldn’t tell him? And what was its significance? Another moment would be when Scout says â€Å"Then I saw the shadow. † This leaves a very tense and suspenseful feeling, because it raises many questions on what might happen next. The last moment would be this passage: But I must have been reasonably awake, or I would not have received the impression that was creeping into me. It was not unlike one I had last winter, and I shivered, though the night was hot. The feeling grew until the atmosphere in the courtroom was exactly the same as a cold February morning, when the mockingbirds were still, and the carpenters had stopped hammering on Miss Maudie’s new house, and every wood door in the neighborhood was shut as tight as the doors of the Radley Place. A deserted, waiting, empty street, and the courtroom was packed with people. A steaming summer night was no different from a winter morning. Mr. Heck Tate, who had entered the courtroom and was talking to Atticus, might have been wearing his high boots and lumber jacket. Atticus had stopped his tranquil journey and had put his foot onto the bottom rung of a chair; as he listened to what Mr. Tate was saying, he ran his hand slowly up and down his thigh. because it leaves questionable results within the reader and it’s a bit of a cliffhanger in which we can’t determine entirely what will happen next. Symbol – Three symbols within the novel would be mockingbirds, Boo Radley, and the snowman. The mockingbird holds a lot of symbolic meaning within the book. The mockingbird in the book represents the idea of innocence, and when killing the mockingbird it is killing the innocence. Boo Radley helps symbolize the development of Jem and Scout’s innocence into a grown-up moral perspective. The snowman, being black on the inside and white on the outside, symbolizes how the whites need the blacks even in a society in which the white people seem to be predominant. Theme – I believe that a main theme in this novel is the existence of social inequality, in which there is a growing prejudice towards various groups of people. This relates to several human conditions, such as isolation. When there is the inequality mentioned in this novel, it creates isolation to those certain individuals. Another human condition, in which it may relate, is risk-taking. As those individuals in whom the prejudice is against, they constantly take risks whenever they may do something of their will, because the spectators around them will not accept it and might do whatever is needed to stop it. The last human condition would be the commitment to values. This is major, because no matter the effects of others, these people within the book will fight until the end and will stay true to their beliefs. Tone – Narrated action: â€Å"Jem leaped off the porch and galloped toward us. He flung open the gate, danced Dill and me through, and shooed us between two rows of swishing collards. Halfway through the collards I tripped; as I tripped the roar of a shotgun shattered the neighborhood† This narrated action of the kids leaving the Radley house on page 71 creates a very urgent tone, as the use of the words â€Å"galloped† and â€Å"flung† are fast-action paced movements in which a reader would feel the urgency of the situation. Also the intensity of the tone is described in the last sentence, because in a situation such as that one the moment begins to get very tense and suspenseful as to what will happen next. Description: â€Å"The back of the Radley house was less inviting than the front: a ramshackle porch ran the width of the house; there were two doors and two dark windows between the doors. Instead of a column, a rough two-by-four supported on end of the roof. And old Franklin stove sat in the corner of the porch; above it a hat-rack mirror caught the moon and shone eerily† This is a description of the Radley house on page 70 when Scout, Jem, and Dill decide to try to see into it. The tone of this passage is an eerie, frightening one. It’s description is vivd and describes a place in which most people would run from, and thus creates the tone as states before. Dialogue: â€Å"Hush your mouth! Don’t matter who they are, anybody sets foot in this house’s yo’comp’ny, and you don’t let me catch you remarkin’ on their ways like you was so high and mighty! Yo’ folks might be better’n the Cunninghams but it don’t count for nothin’ the way you’re disgracin’ ‘em – if you can’t act fit to eat the table you can just set here and eat in the kitchen! This is dialogue in which Calpurnia is speaking to Scout about her behaviour around Walter Cunningham. The tone this creates is very fierce and strong, because it states that she â€Å"whispered fiercely† in which a reader can imagine the anger and the strong tone that she would be addressing to Scout in. Verisimiltude – I find that a moment when Harper Lee demonstrates verisimilitude is when Cecil Jones is beckoning that Atticus defends â€Å"niggers† in a tone that it would be almost shameful of Atticus to do. This reates a feeling in which it seems realistic, because during that time, people would accuse black persons as guilty, no matter what. It shows a prejudice against different coloured persons in which readers would know was present in that time. We understand that during this era it was practically impossible for a black man to win any sort of fight against an unjust accusation, and thus, helps make the novel seem more realistic. Antagonist – Right off the bat, in Part 1, Scout seems to meet a whole range of antagonists. While some are less memorable and less significant; such as Scout’s fights on the playground, misunderstandings between her and Miss Caroline, her bickers with Jem and her utter dislike towards her cousin Francis, there are some that represent a turning point for the characters or last throughout the whole story. One antagonist I think was a turning point for Scout and Jem was Mrs. Dubose. From Scout’s point of view, Mrs. Dubose is depicted as a rather vicious woman, who likes verbally abuse the Finch family, which is no concern to their father. She is more of an antagonist for Jem rather than Scout, as her words seem to wear Jem down more than it has an effect on Scout. The other ones in Part 1 are not as strong of antagonists but their opposition with the protagonists do last throughout the story. They are Aunt Alexandra and Nathan Radley. Nathan Radley, just wants to keep the children away from his brother Boo, but in the process he appears many times to have a slight dislike for the kids. While Aunt Alexandra is someone Scout dislikes due to the attitude her aunt poses towards her. The main antagonist that appears in the trial plot is the main theme of hatred against black people. This theme is represented in many characters but is most noticeable in Bob Ewell. I think this hatred is largely evident to have affected Jem the most because he had felt the most confident that Tom would not be convicted, and starts to cry when the opposite decision is made. He then tries to shut out the memory of the trial from his mind in order to grow up in hopes of fixing this hatred. Antecedent action – 1. During the first five years in Maycomb, Atticus practiced economy more than anything; for several years thereafter he invested his earnings in his brother’s education. 2. †Maycomb was an old town, but it was a tired town when I first knew it. 3. â€Å"Our mother died when I was two, so I never felt her absence. † Caricature – Scout: She is described by the adults as a girl who always wears overalls, never skirts. In the time of the story she c an be mocked for not acting the way a normal girl of her age should act. Characterization – Choleric: Scout is someone I would consider choleric. She has a restless nature as a kid and has the impulse to act on her feelings not fully aware of what the consequences will be. She can be described with having the tendency of being physically aggressive when nothing else works out due to her playground fights she constantly has with her classmates earlier on in the book. Melancholic: Mayella Ewell is a girl I feel is rather moody as she seems confused and shy. She does not want to talk much in court anxious that her words can have consequences. She also seems rather unsociable as she does not speak to anyone outside of her household except for Tom. Phlegmatic: Atticus is a lawyer who understands how to keep his calm. He is sensitive to the people around him and acts the same manner towards everyone no matter who the person may be. Sanguine: A character that I find quite lively would be Dill. Although he expresses to Scout how he feels lonely at home, he is one not to let the issue make him depressed. He finds a way to narrate it in a creative way to Jem and Scout before he reveals the truth. He is very easy going with his words as he tells Scout he hopes to marry her when he grows up, not caring about the problems that come along with his words. Direct: – Walter Cunningham (â€Å"If Walter had owned any shoes he would have worn them the first day of school and discarded them until mid-winter. He did have a clean shirt and neatly mended overalls. †) In this sentence alone, Walter doesn’t seem to be able to afford another pair of shoes or he would have not had to wait until it was cold to reuse them. Scout later in provides evidence towards this statement when she tells Miss Caroline about how the Cunningham family â€Å"never took anything they can’t pay back – no church baskets and no script stamps. She also explains to the teacher â€Å"They don’t have much, but they get along on it. † -â€Å"Burris† Ewell (â€Å"The boy stood up. He was the filthiest human I had ever seen. †) This sentence gives us detail on Burris’ physical character as previously mentioned in this chapter, the reason they children stopped to look at Burris in the first place was becau se something had crawled out of his hair. – Mrs. Dubose (â€Å"She was vicious. Once she heard Jem refer to our father as â€Å"Atticus† and her reaction was apoplectic. †) The writer does not waste time in pointing out to us that Mrs. Dubose is a vicious character. Also as many children do not refer to their fathers by their first name, she may have found this as the children growing up with disobedient manners. Indirect: – Dill (â€Å"The Radley Place fascinated Dill. In spite of our warnings and explanations it drew him as the moon draws water, but drew him no nearer than the light-pole on the corner, a safe distance from the Radley gate. †) This quote is conveniently placed at the beginning, to give us hints of Dill’s character right of the bat. He, like most children, is curious and has a desire to cure his curiosity no matter the cause, but is threatened by the thought of encountering something horrific or disappointing. This characterization is again used later on in the story when he goes with the Finch children to the trial, but later ends up crying when the trial ends up leaving him confused and short of words. -Calpurnia (â€Å"Again I thought her voice strange: she was talking like the rest of them. †) Calpurnia when is first heard by Scout talking to a fellow black person, she finds it odd how she changes her dialogue and grammar to match theirs. This hints that Calpurnia, even though she is well educated I too ashamed or embarrassed to be different from the rest of her community. – Atticus (â€Å"He put the newspaper down very carefully, adjusting its creases with lingering fingers. They were trembling a little. †) In the part of the story Atticus is confronted by several men from Maycomb, somewhat threatening him for taking action on defending Tom Robinson. We can tell that Atticus must have felt some fear making his fingers tremble, but still remains calm trying to remove the children from the scene. Dynamic: I do not find Atticus as an overly dynamic character. Throughout the book, his attitude towards the people of Maycomb does not change as well his actions are not compromised. He has some instances of disbelief and confusion towards the ending of the book, but these instances do not have much effect on Attticus’ psychological thinking. Realistic: Jem is a boy with very realistic feelings. He tries to hide his problems from the people around him, as he recognizes their problems and does not want to add to the issue. He reminds me of a teenager wanting to be left alone to think of their future or to sort out their thoughts. Stock: Burris Ewell to me is considered as a stock character. He portrays what people typically think of as â€Å"hill-billys†. He is too poor and his family too corrupted for him to attend school, therefore he drops out after a few days of it. Static: Bob Ewell to me has not changed in any way throughout the story. He is a person many people disrespect dues to his attitude and actions, and he proves it by having the trial against Tom Robinson, assuming he would be a hero for treating a black person like trash. He is deeply angered though, when people do not approve of his action and threatens not only adults but having the will to kill children in the end, proving to us that his personality does not change one bit. Climax – I think the climatic event of the trial plot was when Tom was convicted of rape. In the trial the tension between the two parties, being Tom and Bob, heat up as the plot is explained more with every testimony given. The information is accumulated to a point where the jury has to make a decision. This decision would then give us the climax and the result of everything that occurs afterward. The climax of the Boo Radley plot would for me be when the children sneak into the Radley house, although they see nothing, they are chased out of the house with fear. This fear I would consider to be the climax as afterwards the children seems to gradually stop thinking about Boo Radley, resulting in a denouement. Complication- In the trial plot, Scout’s main goal is to understand the trial and the changes it brought to the people around her. This is complicated by the fact that many of the people in Maycomb whom she thought she understood are suddenly opposed to Atticus’ actions. Some significant ones are the whispers of parents towards their children to treat the Finch children well, as Scout does not understand why they needed to be treated any differently. Another would be the how the adults in the story try to get Scout and the other children to leave the court, as she feels as she needs to be there to feel at ease with what’s been happening around her. In the Boo Radley Plot, the children’s main goal is to get Boo out of his house. They are stopped however, by many adults in hopes that they would stop pestering the Radley family. To these adults dismay, they continue though until one day they attempt to sneak into the Radley house and Jem loses his pants. After this, Jem is terrified enough that they stop these attempts. They then start finding odd objects in the tree near their house that start up their goal again, but this is quickly stopped when Nathan Radley presumably fills the tree hole. Conflict- Scout: Although Scout has to deal with the problem of the aftereffects of the trial towards the ending of her story, I think her conflict is how her peers and kin try to train her to be a lady as she is aware of their attempts and reasons but feel that they re unreasonable. Jem: Jem unlike Scout has a better understanding of why the adults want him to grow up to be a gentleman, but this is complicated when the trial of Tom Robinson comes into his life. He feels confused and rather that the trial ws unjust that he tries to erase every memory of this moment, leaving his emotions with nowhere to go. Dill: Dill de als with the problem of being a lonely child. He initially is sent to Maycomb to spend time with his aunt. Miss Rachel but Maycomb later on becomes his place of refuge when he runs away from home. He explains that he left because he felt as if his parents have no interest in him and he has no siblings to share this feeling with. Atticus: Atticus may be a confident lawyer, but he seems to be self-concious when it comes to being a father. He always tries to help his children follow the correct path in life but sometimes doubts himself in the process. This happens more frequently after the trial has taken place, as Atticus hopes that his children are not outcasted in the town due to his actions and beliefs in the trial plot. Crisis- When the Boo Radley and trial plot interlock, a crisis occurs as Scout and Jem who struggle to escape from Bob Ewell are rescued by Boo, this comes as a turning point as Scout had always thought Boo would never come out of his house, even though she had moments when she wishes he does. Deux ex Machina- Bob Ewell’s death would be something I would consider as deux ex machina, as it was very unlikely that anything was going to happen to Bob Ewell after the trial, however his death was placed in there will the people of Maycomb believing he fell on his knife. I think the author had placed this in the story to give us closure being that the narrator of the story was a child that would have slept uneasy knowing that Bob Ewell was still alive. Dialogue- The dialogue in the novel I felt was well written. It was very clear in the dialogue who was speaking and who they were speaking to most of the time according to their tone of voice and the emotions they express. Discovery- Scout throughout the book, her perceptions of Boo Radley changes as it goes from believing he was a dangerous man, to someone that save her and Jem’s lives. Exposition – 1. â€Å"He liked Maycomb, he was Maycomb Country born and bred; he knew his people, they knew him and because Simon Finch’s industry, Atticus was related by blood or marriage to nearly every family in the town. † This background info at the beginning doesn’t seem like much, as it just explains to us how close the Finch family is to the people of the town. However later on, we find out that due to Atticus being family to almost everyone in Maycomb, it is harder for them to deal with him defending a black person accused of a despicable crime. 2. † First Purchase Africa M. E. Church was in the Quarters outside the southern town limits, across the old sawmill tracks. It was an ancient paint-peeled frame building, the only church in Maycomb with a steeple and bell, called First Purchase because it was paid for from the first earnings of freed slaves. Negroes worshiped in it on Sundays and white men gambled in it on weekdays. † This gives us insight on how the black people of the time were disrespected, that a house of worship for the people is regarded as a house of sin for a white man. Flashback- In one flashback, when Scout explains to us once when Uncle Jack helped her with an injury when she was younger. For me, I would consider the whole story a flashback. The story starts off with telling us about when Jem was thirteen, but on the next page it tells us Jem is only eleven. Foil- Bob Ewell can be considered a foil to Atticus as Atticus does not seem to view him as an enemy but someone rather with opposite values. Bob Ewell is what the people in Maycomb would consider a no-good, and being careless towards his children. While Atticus is seen as the opposite as a man who takes good care of his children and is focused on his job. Hero- the hero in this book would be Atticus. Atticus being a lawyer, to the children it seems like he is defending â€Å"innocent† people no matter who it is as to them he seems like a hero. Jem idolizes his dad, as he shows many instances of wanting to grow up and be a lawyer like his dad. Many people around Scout also praise Atticus as being a hero for being able to stand up for his beliefs and not giving up no matter the situation. Narrator- I believe Scout is a combination of a naive and reliable narrator. She is naive being that she only a child and have not developed a complete understanding about the situations around them. We catch her not understanding the trial as much as we thought when Jem accuses Scout of not being able to comprehend the situation. This is later proven when the results from the jury are shown yet she does not feel as sentimental as her family does towards the situation. Protagonist – the protagonist in this book would be Scout. It is Scout because she is narrating the story in first person, meaning the story is about problems and situations revolving her she is the only person that all the situations in the entire book could be about. Subplot – I think the Boo Radley plot would be considered as a subplot, as this plot I feel does not impact the reader as much as the trial plot. The Boo Radley part gives us an introduction to the children and their lives, but they do not give us a clear problem that the children deal with. The Boo Radley plot does not seem to have much effect on the children when they are grown enough to accept that Boo Radley will not come out of his house as they seem to accept Boo they way he is.