Friday, May 31, 2019

Effects of Smoking :: Argumentative Persuasive Example Essays

The effects of smoking cigarettesSmoking is involved in most of all lung cancer deaths. An individual with chronic bronchitis, which is cookd by smoking, is more likely to nail a bacterial infection if he or she is a pinheadr. A smoker gets more nose and throat infections, respiratory infections, and bronchitis.Cigarette smoking accounts for a third of all heart disease deaths. The carbon monoxide in the cigarette smoke increases the amount of cholesterol clogging the arteries. Smoking causes stiffness in the walls of the arteries, which are, is denigrating to the artery and increases the risk for the artery to rupture. The nicotine in cigarettes can raise your blood pressure, heart rate, and the oxygen demand for muscles, especially the heart. Cigarette Smoking is the major cause of cancer of the lips, tongue, salivary glands, mouth, and esophagus. The development of stomach cancer can be directly associated with smoking. Smoking is known to cause bladder cancer. Quitting smoki ng will not result in a high reduction in the risk of getting bladder cancer. A strong association exists between smoking and leukemia. Women who smoke are at an increased risk of osteoporosis.Second Hand smoking can also be harmful. Infants and children have tender tissues and are more subtle to second hand smoke. Many develop cancers when they get older. It is about 53,000 deaths per year as a result of passive smoking in the United States. 37,000 of these deaths hang from cardiovascular disease. Culver2The effects of tobacco smoke are just as bad, if not worse, in nonsmokers as in smokers. All of the risks for smokers also hold unbowed for exposure to second hand smoke. Tobacco smoke is made up of many hazardous vapors and particles that when inhaled are harmful to both the smoker and to others around.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Grandpa Blakeslee in Burns Cold Sassy Tree :: essays research papers

In heart, spate crave guidance. At some point, everyone call for a helping hand. Some people turn to one another, while other turn to great forces of occasion, such as God. Many people make out accordingly to the rules of God, and in turn are directed in leading a better life. In the brilliant novel Cold Sassy Tree, by Olive Ann Burns, Grandpa Blakeslee is such a someone. Whenever Grandpa faces an obstacle, he turns to God. Grandpa turns to God whenever he needs true help. Grandpa is a type of person who is mild, witty, and rather religious. Grandpa uses religion to solve many of his problems. At the beginning of the story, young woman Love was the target of gossip. The entire town viewed her as an outsider and couldnt understand why she married Grandpa, especially after his wife had recently died. After Grandpa elopes, he comes back to the house and finds a group of people mourning the sad death. When Grandpa prays, Lord above, afore this gatherin assembled, I ask You to bless the memory of Miss Mattie Lou (99). Everyone stood shockingly, in silence as Grandpa continued the prayer. When he finishes singing the praises of his deceased wife, and asking for guidance for his new one, the crowd has a change of heart.It was a strange thing that happened then. My mama went up to her pa and kissed him and, crying, hugged Miss Love, who, crying, hugged her back. My daddy kissed Miss Love on the cheek and then shook hands with Grandpa. Uncle Camp naturally did the same thing (100).Slyly, Grandpa used the power of God to divert the feelings of the crowd. While Will is talking to Grandpa about his frightening encounter with the train, he asks Grandpa if he is alive because of Gods go out (97). Without fail, Grandpa responds with wise words. He tells Will that God gave him a brain (97). This shows that Grandpa believes God doesnt deal with the everyday mumbo jumbo, only the things that are life altering. He believes that God doesnt need to be there for us twenty-four hours a day, but will give us certain abilities that take to heart you when you need assistance. Conclusively, Grandpa starts to give Will a sermon.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Rock n Roll & 20th Century Culture Essay -- essays research papers fc

Rock n spew and 20th Century Culture jibe to Philip Ennis, rock n draw emerged fromthe convergence of social transformations which resultedfrom World War II (Ryan 927). Despite its pop closeorigins, rock music is arguably one of the strongestcultural factors to develop in this century. Artists such asLennon, McCartney and Dylan defined the emotions of ageneration and, in the last decade, it as even beenacknowledged by members of the establishment which it hopedto change as a major influence in the country. In order tounderstand how rock went from a sign of rebellion to acultural icon, it is necessary to understand where it camefrom.According to Albert Murray, the African-Americanmusical tradition is fundamentally stoical yet affirmativein tonus (Star 3). Through the medium of the blues,African-Americans expressed a resilience of spirit whichrefused to be crippled by either poverty or racism. It isthrough music that the energies and dexterities of blackAmerican life are sounded a nd expressed (39). For the blackculture in this country, the music of Basie or Ellingtonexpressed a wideawake, forward-tending oscillation that onecan not only dance to but live by (Star 39). Although he later denied that he ever said it, SamPhillips-the man who discovered Elvis Presley-is reputed tohave said, if I could find a white man who had the blackamoorsound the Negro feel, I could make a billion dollars(Decurtis 78). Certain radio stations would not play thework of black artists in the discriminate America of the1950s. But, nevertheless, rock n roll was an art formcreated by African-Americans. Little Richard, whose songsTutti Fruitti and Long Tall Sally became hits only afterwhite-bread versions were make by Pat Boone, said, Itstarted out as rhythm and blues (Decurtis 78). Through Elvis Presley, rock n roll changed the faceof American music, and influenced a hearty generationspolitical philosophy. Composer Leonard Berstein once said,He introduced the beat to everything a nd changedeverything-music, language, clothes its a whole new socialrevolution-the 60s come from it (Wattenberg 6B). To hiscredit, Elvis embraced rhythm and blues not as a from to beimitated, but as a form to honored and interprete... American History. revolutionary York Houghton MifflinCo. Goodman, Dean. Dylan fans get tangled up in academicviews, Reuters (1998) February, p. PG.Harris, James F. Listen to the music the meaning ofclassic rock, The World & I, Vol. 11, 12 Ed.(1996) December, pp. 306.Ryan, John. The Seventh Stream The emergency of rock nroll in American popular music, (Book reviews)Social Forces (1994) March, p. 927.Star, Alexander. Hole in Our Soul The Loss of Beauty andMeaning in American Popular Music (book reviews) TheNew Republic, Vol. 210. (1994) May, pp. 39-42.Wattenberg, Daniel. Elvis as force for social change hassadly been forgotten, Rocky Mountain News. (1997)August, pp. 6B.

Stevensons Use of Setting in The Strange Case of Doctor Jekyll and Mr.

Stevensons Use of Setting in The Strange Case of Doctor Jekyll and Mr. Hyde The strange case of prepare Jekyll and Mr. Hyde was written by Robert Louis Stevenson in 1885. The floor is set in the late nineteenth century in central capital of the United Kingdom. At the time London was a dark place, were a series of gruesome crimes had taken place, although it was the largest city and richest in the entire world, it contained extremes of wealth and poverty, it was almost as if there was a dividing line, as if was London two different worlds in one city. One side was wealthy and the residents were well mannered, the other side was dirty and mucky, Stevenson use this to help us ascertain the idea of one person with two sides one good and one bad in the novel. The novel is both horror and mystery, as we dont know who Hyde is or how Jekyll and Hyde are connected. Having all these unanswered questions makes it mysterious. It is also a horror as we read about th is evil man Hyde trampling over a boyish girl and brutally mangleing an devoid man. Stevensons purpose is to show the duality of human nature the dividing self, that there are different sides to everybody. No one is totally innocent everybody has good and evil inside of them. In chapter one Utterson and Enfield are walking one afternoon and they pass a door and Enfield starts to tell a story about this door and how Hyde trampled over a young girl then used this door to enter and come out with a cheque for the girls family. We learn a lot about this door from Enfield. This door is described as an odd door for well-nigh this place in London having windows and the wall around it was said to be di... ...the evil side of a person in the duality of nature. In chapter four a maid witnesses Hyde mop uping the wealthy sir Danvers Carew, the weapon used to kill him is recognized by Utterson as Dr Jekylls and as the police investigate they find a burnt chequ e book of Jekylls. The violent description of the murder helps us to understand and see who the real murderer is and how evil he is, and what Hyde is really capable of. She was surprised to recognize him as a certain Mr. Hyde, this shows Hyde is cognise to many people around. We get to see the duality of nature in Utterson which we haven seen before, as he shows his hate for Hyde by taking the police to his dramatics in Soho. Showing he is also has evil within him. In this chapter we also see how evil Hyde actually is by how he brutally murder sir Danvers Carew.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Orlick as the Dark Side of Pip in Dickens Great Expectations Essay

Orlick as the Dark Side of shoot in Dickens outstanding Expectations Charles Dickens aptly titled novel expectant Expectations focuses on the journey of the stories chief protagonist, Pip, to fulfill the expectations of his life that have been set for him by external forces. The fusing of the plain unattainable aspects of high society and upper class, coupled with Pips insatiable desire to reach such status, drives him to realize these expectations that have been prescribed for him. The include desire that he feels stems from his experiences with Mrs. Havisham and the unbridled passion that he feels for Estella. Pip realizes that due to the society-imposed caste system that he is trapped in, he will never be able to acquire Estellas love working as a lowly blacksmith at the forge. The gloomy realizations that Pip is undergoing cause him to categorically despise everything just about himself, feeling ashamed for the life he is living when illuminated by the throngs of the upper class. These feelings are summed up in Pips utter nuisance and hatred for the character of Orlick. To Pip, Orlick represents everything that he abhors about himself. When Pip sees Orlick he envisions what awaits him in the future being ensnared in a life that he couldnt bear. Orlick, in actualization, is Pip without his high expectations. But there is a much deeper and ominous aspect of the relationship between Pip and Orlick. Dickens uses the character of Orlick to symbolize the darkside of Pip. Pips innermost primal feelings and desires are represented through Orlicks actions, which Pip is ultimately responsible for. These actions ultimately lead to the downfall of both men. In the first scene where we see Pip and Orlick together, there is ... ...eration. Its ironic that if only Pip had followed through with the original expectations that he had set for himself instead of the mantic greater expectations that he hoped for, he would have been better off. Works Cited and Consult edBell, Vereen. Understanding the Characters of Great Expectations. Victorian Newsletter 27 (1965) 21-24. Dickens, Charles. Great Expectations. Ed. Janice Carlisle. Boston Bedford, St. Martins, 1996. Rawlins, Jack P. Great Expectations Dickens and the Betrayal. Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900. 23 (1983) 667-683.Millhauser, Milton. Great Expectations The Downfall. Dickens Studies Annual 2 (1972) 267-276. Rosenberg, Edgar. Last Words on Great Expectations. Dickens Studies Annual 9 (1981) 87- 107. Sucksmith, Harvey Peter. The Narrative Art of Charles Dickens. Oxford Oxford UP, 1970.

Orlick as the Dark Side of Pip in Dickens Great Expectations Essay

Orlick as the Dark Side of blot in Dickens slap-up Expectations Charles Dickens aptly titled novel Great Expectations focuses on the journey of the stories psyche protagonist, Pip, to fulfill the expectations of his life that have been set for him by external forces. The fusing of the seemingly unattainable chances of high society and amphetamine class, coupled with Pips unsated desire to reach such status, drives him to realize these expectations that have been prescribed for him. The encompassing desire that he feels stems from his experiences with Mrs. Havisham and the unbridled passion that he feels for Estella. Pip realizes that due to the society-imposed caste system that he is trapped in, he will never be able to acquire Estellas love working as a gloomy blacksmith at the forge. The gloomy realizations that Pip is undergoing cause him to categorically despise everything about himself, feeling ashamed for the life he is living when illuminated by the throngs of the upper class. These feelings are summed up in Pips utter disgust and hatred for the character of Orlick. To Pip, Orlick represents everything that he abhors about himself. When Pip sees Orlick he envisions what awaits him in the incoming being ensnared in a life that he couldnt bear. Orlick, in actualization, is Pip without his high expectations. But there is a much deeper and ominous aspect of the relationship between Pip and Orlick. Dickens uses the character of Orlick to symbolize the darkside of Pip. Pips innermost primal feelings and desires are represented through Orlicks actions, which Pip is ultimately responsible for. These actions ultimately lead to the downfall of both men. In the first scene where we see Pip and Orlick together, there is ... ...eration. Its ironic that if nevertheless Pip had followed through with the original expectations that he had set for himself instead of the supposed greater expectations that he hoped for, he would have been better off. Works Cited and ConsultedBell, Vereen. Understanding the Characters of Great Expectations. Victorian Newsletter 27 (1965) 21-24. Dickens, Charles. Great Expectations. Ed. Janice Carlisle. Boston Bedford, St. Martins, 1996. Rawlins, Jack P. Great Expectations Dickens and the Betrayal. Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900. 23 (1983) 667-683.Millhauser, Milton. Great Expectations The Downfall. Dickens Studies Annual 2 (1972) 267-276. Rosenberg, Edgar. Last Words on Great Expectations. Dickens Studies Annual 9 (1981) 87- 107. Sucksmith, Harvey Peter. The Narrative Art of Charles Dickens. Oxford Oxford UP, 1970.

Monday, May 27, 2019

American Imperialism and Early Progressives Essay

The issues America had with other countries all revolved around things like that. There was the lanthanum Purchase. There was the Mexican-American War. There was the 54-40 or Fight crisis involving England and the Oregon Territory. Beginning with the Spanish-American War, the US turned towards expanding its power and having more of an impact on the international scene. The US indeed did things like taking and running the Philippines. It pushed for the Open Door in China.The war represented the first major military engagement for the United States b places since the Mexican-American War and light-emitting diode to a desire of United States interests throughout the Caribbean and into the western Pacific region . The wars outcome led to dramatic increases in the United States navy budget and U. S military involvement in the Philippines, resulting in a three-year war. The Spanish-American War created policies promoting overseas investments and expansion, later referred to as dollar dip lomacy under electric chair Taft.Before that, this expanded policy could be seen in the Open Door policy regarding China. It could alike be seen in President Theodore Roosevelts engineering a revolt in Panama against the Colombian government and then negotiating for the Panama Canal Zone and construction of the Panama Canal. 2) Explain how the following individuals responded to the economic and mixer problems created by the industrialization during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries Jane Addams, Andrew Carnegie, Samuel Gompers, Upton SinclairThesis Industrialization may have created a dramatic increase in wealthiness but brought along social and economic problems, Andrew Carnegie responded to these problems with the gospel of wealth, Sinclair attacked corruption in industrys, Jane Addams with Hull Houses and movements for women and Samuel Gompers with the AF of L. Addams focused on poverty, low wages, poor conditions and the need to drink immigrants. Her goal was to help with the poverty and bad lives of of urban life. She established a settlement house, Hull House, in Chicago in 1889. 00 settlement houses were established crosswise America because of her. She advocated the regulatory movement for slums and factories that opposed child labor and sweatshops and advocated for the 8-hour working day for women. Carnegie did want to fix the issues of the emerging economy with his vertical integration of the sword industry. Carnegie built wealth around efficient monopolistic operations, vertical integration, lowest possible wages, exploitation of workers, and forbidding unions. He advocated the Gospel of Wealth, and economic survival of the fittest.Yet, Carnegie also held that excess wealth was a trust for communities, and he established the many Carnegie funded public libraries. Altogether he gave away over $150 million. Gompers organized unions into the American union of Labor unions were independent but cooperated on bread and butter issues. He wanted higher wages, fewer working hours, business liability for injuries, mine safety laws, and leverage of skilled unions the AFL coordinated charters and boycotts. The AFL had 2 million members by 1904 but mostly omitted semi- and unskilled workers and women.Sinclair wrote the book The Jungle in 1906 and described meatpacking conditions, which make Theodore Roosevelt push for the 1906 Meat Inspection Act that established sanitary rules and inspections. Sinclair was an investigative muckraker focusing on abuse of workers. 3) How Successful were the progressive reforms during the degree 1890 to 1915 with respect to the following Industrial condition, Urban life, politics Progressive reform helped in seeing the creation of labor unions like The Knights of Labor and The American Federation of Labor.These unions pushed for higher pay and shorter work days for workers by attempting to organize the laborers. They achieved some of what they desired to but not all do to the advanced organization and supple methods of reacting of the companies. the reforms were prosperous in terms of industrial conditions. Examples of this Creation of strong labor unions such as The Knights of Labor and the America along with Federation of Labor. These unions pushed for higher tokenish wages and pay and shorter work days. Also, to rid of child labor.For Urban life improvements, i didnt develop an argument yet but i have these ideas that were successful The Hull House, Public Education, Crime, Pollution and theres a whole lot more but im working on it now. Sorry but thats all i have( In addition, the Conserative reforms of Teddy Roosevelt and Taft. TR added the Yellow Stone National Park to a protective reserve. Taft built off of these ideas with more parks being made into reserves. How successful were progressive reforms during the period 1890-1915 with respect to TWO of the following?Industrial conditions urban life politics. The late 19th vitamin C and early 20th century were marked by a period of reforms known as Progressivism. During this time, leaders of Progressive reforms aimed to improve American lives by instigating changes that would influence politics and urban lifestyles. Progressivism loosely helped improve the everyday life and reduced corruption within the nations legislations. During the Progressive Era, President Theodore Roosevelt adapted in 1904 what was known as the shape Deal program.This was the main program that outlined business relationships between the corporate leaders and the industrial workers and that fairness and equality would preside over the connection. However, in order to prevent a communistic society and maintain competition in the economy, Roosevelt did not eliminate all trusts. He declared that there were some goodness trusts, along with the bad ones. The good trusts were those that were free from corruption and would generally maintain a fair and just relationship between employer and employee.The program inclu ded the Sherman just Act, which demanded that the trusts be judged by the acts they have committed. This act successfully signaled the end of corrupt trusts, along with the passing of the Elkins Act. The Elkins Act prevented the rich and the well known to benefit and receive rebates on the railways. The Elkins Act forced the railroads to create an equal rate for people of all walks of life and it could not be subject to change. In the coal strike of 1902, hundreds of thousands of Americans refused to work in the mines without improvements to working conditions.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Mind and Body

Throughout our class discussion and reading we have learned more than about philosophical theories and the many contradicting views people have against them. The psyche and corpse paradox has been in existence for centuries. Philosophers from all measures have contemplated this problem deuce of which argon Rene Descartes and John Searle. The problem is how the automobile trunk and intelligence interact with each other if they be separate. The drumhead and be are state to be cardinal different entities that have different characteristics.At present we dont normally take this view seriously, we still tend to believe that we substructure non be what we are if we are simply cells, tissues, organs. many an(prenominal) have surroundd that each holds its receive properties and can be without the other. The capitulum and personify are distinguishable in their properties entirely are derived from one another. The mind and ashes are co myrmecophilous on each other and need one another in making decisions. The mind requires the body to learn and experience in hunting lodge to make accurate judgments, while the body requires the mind to make its decisions for it. Without one or the other, they would not be able to perform.We have a conception of at least twain different kinds of properties that exist in the world, mental and natural. Mental in which is pain, desire, belief, kindness and bodily which is hydrogen, pencils, mass, size and location. I believe the physical household would not exist if it was not for the mental category, in which is directly correlated with the mind and body, one cannot exist if it was not for the other. Parallelism says that there is no fellowship between any mental phenomena and any physical phenomena. The mind and the body coexist together and thrive on the other by using the others traits.Many argue that a homos d feedh is not death until the wag or mind has stopped. Once the humour is stopped there is no live to control the body and cannot be revived. By that same statement, some argue that the same body that ends with the minds death does not begin until the brain is functioning or until the mind is able to make decisions. A young has a mind that is capable of making decisions, it does not know how to implement the decisions. It is through experience and succession that the mind learns. The mind learns from the body, through the experiences that the body has.From touch to sense of taste to sound, every experience is a new experience to a new mind. A newborn does not know what is around it nor does it know the sounds and smells that surround the hospital. The newborns mind uses the body to determine and make interpretations as to what the surroundings are. In that aspect the mind is dependent on the body. It needs the body to experience. The mind cannot receive a desk or smell a flower. It needs the body to relate those findings so that later it can make a judgment or decision on pri or knowledge. The mind later can use its prior experiences and knowledge to make decisions that are relevant for that time.A quick example of how the mind and body are dependent is in the new technological revolution. A. I. or artificial intelligence is a estimator that learns on its own. A. I. is able to experience and learn. The computer learns from using its senses, may they be wheels not legs, or sensors rather than eyes, to teach it self. For example, a computer could hit an objective that is obstructing its path. Since the computer, handle a mind, learns through its experiences by using the body it now knows that when there is an obstacle in its path to go around the object and not through it.With the mind being dependant on the body one could argue that without the body the mind would cease to exist. This is aline but it is in any case true for the body not existing without the mind. It uses the body to make decisions almost same a puppet. If the mind feels the body need s food it makes the decision to have the body walk from point A to point B and eat an apple. The body however needs the mind to make those decisions. How would the body know to eat if it was supperless or drink when thirsty? It would not. It would die of dehydration. The body depends on the mind to make decisions.It only relates the experiences to the mind so that the mind can make scruples elections that will help both the mind and body to coexist. It is in this aspect the mind and body are codependent. If one day I was given a choice to choose between keeping a healthy mind, or a healthy body I would chose keeping a healthy mind. The brain is where all bodily sensations, emotions, and functions come from. I would rather have my consciousness (mind) than just a lump of matter (body) running around. If you exchange your brain with George Bushs brain and do not change the body, what will you feel?You have Bushs mind or Bushs body? Definitely youll see you have your own body with G eorge Bushs mind. In my opinion, a mindless person means a nonliving matter. I believe that we see with the mind and feel with mind. Our eyes just receive the keen facts but we dont understand it until it clear upes our mind through the restless system. Imagine a toy robot as a nonliving thing because it has no mind. A computer does not have a mind it just uses electricity through a logic circuit to do calculations. In the worse case scenario, imagine someone cut off your head from the neck and you are still living.Which part of you is real? Is it the head or the body? I dont think a person would care what happens to his or her body because they wouldnt feel that the body is theirs. You will definitely feel that the head is yourself because it is where your mind is located. And if you separate your brain from it, you will definitely feel that your brain is yourself. A bodiless person can still feel the taste of being able to live, but a mindless person is a toy robot. The body i s very a machine that is attached to the mind and whole kit according to your command.The mind and body problem can be observed in many situations, for example sympathetic melody. Stress in the mind connects to stress in the body. Stress has an impact on the body because it is the mind that regulates the activity of hormones in all organs, and other chemical substance processes. Similarly, the mind (brain) is the control center of the nervous system, which also regulates the activity of the organs (can shut down digestion, cramp muscles, etc). When the mind is healthy, it will keep the body healthy by telling it not to be stressed, just what you are asking.Yes, it is possible to cure yourself just by having the right mind processes. Two people in the same stressful external civilize or with the same illness can have cardinal drastically different results because of having different minds. The body can be more powerful than the mind if you allow it to be that is if you dont dis cipline the body and let it loose. Otherwise, it is the mind and your spirit that are meant to be the true masters of your physical existence. Stress is a powerful factor, many individuals do not give it enough credit.In past times, people needed to be kept calm in times of illness, in more recent days people work through illnesses. When the mind is sick the body becomes sick. mess experience, for instance, elevated heart rate and blood pressure. People can learn to try to counter these bodily forces, but high-pressure jobs do not have high heart-related illness and fatality rates for no reason. The brain controls it all, but it cannot heal everything. When we constantly endure stress and the effects take a toll on dimensions of the heart. It is like doing too many uppers like caffeine or speed, it just shortens your life and ages you.It takes away from the elasticity and resilience of the bodys ability to cope with the stresses or hardships it endures. The mind can do what it can, but we also have to exercise and eat healthy to keep our bodies in prime condition. In our non stop lifestyles some often do not take the time to treat their bodies correctly. We do not always have the time to go have a picnic and a day of no stress, theres always something that has to be dealt with in the near future that makes it harder to find real peace and to let our bodies slow down.For example, taking the time to smell roses or listen to a cats purr, which actually decreases our heart rates and lowers blood pressure. The mind hears what the body says, so it knows when we are in pain. The sickness of the mind can create physical ailments because everything is affected by the mind and its ability to rule the vast network of the merciful body. Alternative medicines believe in using the mind or foods to heal the body, and see the foods we eat and the ways we think and cope with stress as having direct relation to many of the illnesses of the body.Everything is connected, for ev ery action there is a reaction, and so it is with the body, which the brain is in charge of. A stressed individual can utilize relaxation techniques to ease the stress on the body. For example, drink green tea, eat certain foods, or even just a bath. Easing the stress of the mind is not as easy. Drug addiction is another example where the mind and body problem is exemplified. Drug addiction is a mind problem because the chemical that the addict is devoted to has changed their brain chemistry that makes them need the drug to feel good.It is also a mind problem because addiction is usually caused by some dysfunction or unhappiness in a persons life that causes them to use a chemical to cover it up. Its a body problem because the drug is harming many parts of the addicts body and may require medical intervention to detoxify. mental addiction is the way the drug makes a person feel, if it relaxes an individual then it makes them want more. Physical addiction puts you through a withdra wal phase like heroin and you need more often just to feel normal. One can be addicted to numerous things. Some people are addicted to food to satisfy their emotions.Caffeine is often addictive. Whereas amphetamine is very harmful it does give a person a sense of feeling superior, but it also has wicked consequences as destroying your teeth and it can bring on a drug induced psychosis, which is a serious break with reality addiction occurs in two types, physical and psychological. Physical addiction is caused by the brain, the brain produces fewer chemicals or to make up for the extra chemicals, therefore the brain needs the chemicals from the drug to reach the correct balance and the individual becomes out of touch with reality. Psychological addiction is much simpler.The individual simply likes the way a drug makes him/her feel and must(prenominal) have it, therefore becoming addicted. No matter what kind of drug you are dealing with, most of them are going to contain a physical addictive quality, which means that your body is actually going to end up needing the drug. Also, along with the physical addiction, your mind might become dependant on the drug, which is called a psychological addiction. The mind and body need each other to operate. This explains why people having emotional difficulties can develop physical problems such(prenominal) as cant over loss or weight gain.Food, no doubt, greatly impacts the health of our mind and the health of our body. For instance, take an example of a tiger and an elephant. A tiger take a lot of flesh or unhealthy food and is ferocious. An elephant, on the other hand, is a vegetarian and is generally calm. An elephant will never attack unless it gets attacked. This implies that food sustains the physical body and impacts the state of the mind as well. This further enforces that mind and body are interconnected. Rene Descartes the famous French philosopher and mathematician is whom we owe the first account of the min d/body relationship to.Descartes can be seen as a duelist, someone who believes that the mind and the body are not only separate, but competent of independent existence. What I find most appealing about dualism is the belief in the soul and body, spirit and matter. His most famous words are I think, therefore I am. The dictum I think, therefore I am succinctly reflects Descartes dualist principle. I am what I am because I am able to think. For him, the physical body and the non-physical mind coexist in the person. Descartes asks us to think of the following situation, I can imagine myself existing without the body.But I cant imagine myself existing without my mind. Therefore, the incumbrance of me is my mind. Descartes has two theories in which he tries to establish his mind-body theory. This first of his theories is the conceivability strain. Through various premises and conclusions, he feels he is able to firmly state that we are not just a body. So how can the Eliminativists ar gue against this? Second, he states his indivisibility argument, which states, the body and mind are two different things. He uses his properties argument to support his claim with X=Y as his example.With this, Dualist says how can Eliminativists account for these assumptions? There is a vast difference between the mind and the body, in that the body is always divisible, while the mind is completely indivisible (Strathern 67). Although Descartes claimed that the mind and body were totally separate beings, he also found that they were closely intertwined. Descartes concluded that because a body part could be removed without taking away from the mind, the body was a separate being (Cottingham 36). The interdependence of the mind and body was what Descartes considered a human being the mind and body formed a unit.Descartes found that because you sense things occurring to the body through the mind, then if the body and mind were not intertwined, one would not have any feelings in the bo dy. These feelings in the body are what Descartes called confused thoughts (Cottingham 40) because they could not be explained through equations or logical connections. The confirmation for the idea that the mind and body were closely connected was the fact that one can never separate from his body, and can feel and sense things only through his own body. Searle differs from Descartes in that he is not considered a dualist.Searle believes that the mind is caused by the brain and that the mind is merely a feature of the brain. According to Searle, animals have conscious mental states such as visual experiences, feelings of pain, sensations of thirst, hunger, cold, and of heat. John Searle argues that the connection is between the mind and the brain and disregards of the action of the body. Plato believed that the mind is separable from the body and continues after the body dies. He said our minds forget everything they knew from when they existed before being connected to our bodies. As we age our minds remember everything they knew from before they were connected to us at birth. This assumes that minds live independently from the body. If we accept this premise, then the choice is clear. When the body and soul are separate, according to Plato, the soul can recognize things even more clearly than before. He also believed that the soul faces judgment in brief after death. I believe that when we die our bodies will go back to dust and our souls will go to wherever we will go, according to our choice in this life.The mind and body problem cites two major aspects of the relation between mental and physical theories. For this system it is necessary to include both the mind and the body matter as individual substances. The influence that the mind has over behaviors of the body demonstrates the combination and varieties of functions between the two parts. The dependent mind shares a common independency with thought. On the other hand, the dependent body bonds a mutual dependence with action or behavior. To further explain, most modern philosophers have theories of dualism.The state of having two aspects are often opposites in human beings. One reason being, the mind and the brain share unique qualities that influence the behavior of the body yet human beings are build up of two independent parts, the body and the mind/soul. The reasoning is that the mind and body are separate components that build up human beings. Therefore, the commonness between mind and body create the necessary qualities the mind and body need in order to function and accomplish each of their own separate responsibilities. The mind and body differ in makeup and characteristics but need one another to exist.Without the mind our body cannot fulfill its purposes and without the body our mind is left useless. The mind needs the body to learn, experience, and to gain knowledge so that it may make conscious assessments. The body also thrives on the mind. It needs the mind to make its decisions for it. It needs for the mind to know as much as possible so that the choices that it makes will affect the body in a official way. The human body is healthy only when both the mind and the body are healthy. The mind and body appear to be different by their characteristics but one without the other would cease to exist.

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Effect of Early Relationship Intro : Term Paper Essay

As of 2013 teenagers became more interested in getting involved in entering wee romantic alliances and as time passes romantic relationships played an important role in the life of an adolescent. According to Mathew E. Kopfler Dating is shown to affect students both favourably and adversely, just the present seems to be affected by a persons future plans. He also pointed out that Entering romantic relationships amongst the youth stack affect their educational values, goals and military strengths. Many more investigatees backed up the theory of Mr. Kopfler but some also say that there be more shun effects than the verifying ones.By the groups experience in the school many of us tend to hear some comments like my grades went down because my time and all(a) my effort was given to the one I love or my grades are high because Im single many teenagers today blames romantic relationship for their failures when it comes to academic grades. And this is why our group wanted to expand and create a research paper on the positive effects of romantic relationship amongst the students of reverence Louis School Center. We want to prove that entering romantic relationships in high school can be advantageous.We also wanted to make a research on romantic relationships to expand the knowledge and point of views of people in accordance with the effect it has on students whether it is on their academic performance or their attitude and interaction towards other people. Therefore to prove our research we provided 50 copies of questionnaires to be answered by two students (one girl and one boy) per section from 7th grade to quaternate courses. On the date February 6, 2013 Lunch break we started to float our questionnaires starting from the 3rd year level then going down to the 2nd and 1st year level and ending with the 4th year level. After collecting all the floated questionnaires we started to converge data using books, magazines and newspapers from the library.At home we used the internet to gather data from other researches that was created in the past that would help us come up with our conclusion. We are therefore conducting this research to prove that romantic relationship brings positive effects on the academic performance of a student instead for being the cause for the failing grades of students. Also in this research we are aiming to read main reasons why students enter romantic relationships at an early age and how it affects their adolescence. Our research is only limited within the facilities of Saint Louis School Center and the results provided from the questionnaires are based on the attitudes and opinions of the students in SLSC from 7th grade to 4th year level.

Friday, May 24, 2019

Nintendo Case Study

Case Analysis Part 1 Introduction Case 7 of the textbook titled Essentials of Strategic Management looked at the video game pioneer Nintendo. The title of the case is Nintendos Strategy in 2009 The Ongoing Battle with Microsoft and Sony and was indite by Lou Marino and Sally Sarrett. The case begins by describing how Nintendo faced serious competition from Sony and Microsoft in the video game market. As Sony had created the Playstation and Microsoft came out with the Xbox, Nintendo had taken a backseat in terms of recent video game consoles.Through the years however, Nintendo had created many popular devices used for gaming such as the Nintendo 64 and numerous versions of the DS. As Nintendo prepared to disoblige the Wii game system, many said that it lacked the graphics and user birth that their rivals had and it appeared as though it would be a market flop. To the surprise of many critics and competing companies, the Wii was a huge success setting records for total sales.Curre ntly Nintendo is seeing reduced demand and reduced sales due to the recession but they continue to release new features and games and analysts say that the only limitations of the system were the limitations of the designer and the user-leading most to believer they considered the possibilities endless ( ). Nintendos Strategy In its early years, Nintendos strategy was to bring video game experience most commonly found in public venues such as the Donkey Kong arcade game into the users home.This differentiation strategy proved highly favored for Nintendo as they were the first to give the user an affordable gaming console with many different games available for the Nintendo Entertainment System or NES. This continued with the release of numerous versions of the Game Boy and Nintendo DS as users could take their games with them anywhere they went which was unheard of from rivals such as Sony and Microsoft at the time. As competition grew with Sony, Sega, and Microsoft, Nintendos stra tegy seemed to give out towards a cost strategy. They began creating onsoles such as the GameCube to compete with disk operated consoles by their competitors but at a cheaper price. This move turned out to be abortive for a number of reasons, the main one being their lack of graphic capabilities. From here Nintendo began differentiating themselves again. Nintendo set out to design a console that would revolutionize the itinerary people played games and the Wii was born. People that had never played video games before such as women and the elderly could now find games suited for them that were easy to say and fun to play.Users could play games that got them up and moving to promote a healthier lifestyle as well as interact with others. For Nintendo to be successful in the future, this differentiation strategy appears to be the best route to follow. Strategic Leadership The strategic leadership surrounding the Nintendo nerve appears to be ahead of their time in some aspects. Altho ugh they are not coming out with consoles directly aimed at competing with that of Sony and Microsoft, they are however releasing cutting edge technologies into their products.From the dual screen on the DS which allows users to sync up with others to play head to head to the Wii with a Blue alsoth activated controller, Nintendo is constantly changing the video game industry. The marketers at Nintendo understood that too many powerful consoles cant coexist because they would eventually lead to their own collapse ( 375 ). By creating something completely new for users that rivals arent reaching, Nintendo was able to gain control of a relatively untouched market segment. Nintendo is known for its differentiation from the normal gaming systems and this attracts a completely different crowd than Sony and Microsoft.Stakeholders in the Nintendo company know this and this is what ultimately attracts them to their organization just as the stakeholders for Sony or Microsoft are attracted to the strategies of competing to be the best in terms of graphics and realistic gaming experience. If Nintendo was to change and try to compete on the same levels as Sony and Microsoft, they would more than likely lose many of their investors because this differentiation is what keeps Nintendo ranking among the top gaming companies.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Political Theory Essay

Introduction While approaching the compositions of major(ip) philosophical figures in the 16th speed of light and the seventeenth century thither emerges several weaknesses in addition to their governmental thought in their time. In his work, The Foundations of Modern Political Thought, Quentin Skinners emphasises the textualist approach by the peerlesss writing within the genre of governmental theory and further claim that they rarely supplies us with genuine histories. 1 Skinner seems to engage in a diachronic approach to the writings of political thought, which goes hand in hand with the social and political context of the close the major works were composed.Indeed, this proves fruitful for this analysis, and therefore it go forth be provided a narrow historical review of the period the works were written, in order to present the remarkable similarity amidst the causes of political thought. Accordingly, there will be implemented a comparison of the philosophers, Thomas Ho bbes and Jean Bodin, focusing primarily of their concept of the state and the church and the differences between the two models of political thought.In terms of the state, the focus will lie on the citizens and the sovereign rule in terms of the church, an analysis of its place within the governmental example will be provided. The primary sources used as a basis for this analysis is the work of Jean Bodin 6 Books of the Commonwealth, translated by M. J. Tooley, and Hobbes On the Citizen, edited by Richard Tuck & Michael Silverthorne. In grasping the political works of Thomas Hobbes and Jean Bodin it is important to remember that their perception of the state was born in an age of crisis. As central themes of his political thought Hobbes was concerned with peace, security and order however, piety was omnipresent throughout his experience of life and through his works.For Hobbes the only valid overture of a natural religion was that something must have created the world, but who o r what is not for certain. 2 Most important he in addition believed that religious voice was a significant factor for the origins of war. The basics of Hobbes theory was to add the will to avoid religious conflict and be restored peace into one or a group of biological people that was to further secure the will of the state. Like Hobbes, Bodin was concerned with preserving order and his relation to religion is said to be complex. Although he was little familiar with the New political from his religious thought.3 However, entering deeper into the religious life of Bodin it is palpable that he never adhered to one true theological pedestal throughout his lifetime. 4 Another factor of correlation between the two political thinkers is their personal historical background containing the experience of war, which largely contributed as one of their causes for writing. Most known for his work and best-seller, Leviathan, the Englishman Thomas Hobbes was to be acknowledged as an importan t contribution to the philosophical dramaturgy in his lifetime and all the behavior to the 21th century.Hobbes was born in 1588 in Westport raised by his non-wealthy family, fortunately being paid for by his uncle to get an education when the time was right. 5 Entering the field of the enlightened, Hobbes at an age of 54 later produced his first claim to fame, De Cive (On the Citizen), published in Latin edition in 1642 which is characterised as one of the forerunners to his major work Leviathan. Here, it is important reconsider what is omnipresent throughout both, De Cive and Leviathan, namely fear in order to understand his political thought.Some tend to opine Hobbes as a synonym to the concept of fear even though this impossibly cannot be so, however it does not reject Kings object that Hobbes had experienced disorder in society and therefore feared political chaos. 6 England during the 17th century can in be referred to as a period of transformation both in terms of politic s and religion. Historically, throughout Hobbes lifetime (1588 1679) the political circumstances in the years of 1642 to 1651 prove to stand out piebald in the colour of red. The Reformation left deep traces and was not that to relinquish as its religious struggles was to turn into a fight of power between the King and the Parliament.7 The English Civil war provided an environment such as extreme disorder and civil insecurity to be explanatory for the horrors it brought the 6? 78? 9 $? * )? 0?. / 1 1? ? ? ( 4 ? /? $ ( 5 JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHICAL STUDIES,? ? = ? 1? *9/? 6-. A=? B - HTTP//WWW. JSTOR. ORG/ persistent/3745504 0 , $ *3 3 9 )? +? 2 A1. / =0 A? 8? ? 9? C D7 %$E $ * F0.? //? F B -1 G/? HH222I H H 60-6 3 13 Political Theory country8. In a chaotic England, Hobbes had to face his own opponents after he had written the first outline of the philosophy of the state, Elements of Law, Natural and Politic, which created an unstable environment for him to live. Inde ed, adversity was for Hobbes the reason he decided to flee and choose the life in exile crossing the national boarders to France. 9 When the Civil War was over, he returned home to the end of his life, still absorbed in scientific activity.A lesser-known philosopher yet one of the most ambitious and prolific French scholars, Jean Bodin, was born in 1529 or 30 in the French area of Angers. Although living in separate time periods Bodin is born three years after Machiavellis death (1469 1527) and died when Thomas Hobbes was eight years of age and therefore spans precisely between these two. 10 Throughout his lifetime he was, in resemblance to Hobbes, to experience war that provoked his political thinking which prospered into what was to be known as The Six Books of the Commonwealth (1955).Bodin was an admirable scholar and by the time he had to face his mortal destiny he made contributions to the area of science stretching from historiography to political economy. 11 Noticeable that he was among the more enlightened characters of his time, Bodin went to Paris in his youth for educational matters studying humanities. Further curious about the juridical genius of society he went to study civil law until the 1560s, and after he turned to a political career becoming a kings advocate in Paris. A decade later he became a counsellor of the Duke of Alencon which secured him a seat at the table of the royal family, which ceased before 1576.He then further joined the Catholic League (sometimes referred to as the Holy League) which played a major part in the French Wars of Religion (156298) eradicating the Protestants also called the Huguenots. 12 Primarily, The Wars involved the Catholic crown attempting to impose religious uniformity upon the large F? What further divided the citizens in contemporary France was their support for divers(a) versions of the Christian creed that created a warfare of self-righteousness, which for Bodin, was an erroneous societal condition . What Bodins beliefs could be said to represent at the time is further dubiously, but as Summerfield argues, Bodin might have believed that Catholicism was the best civil religion for his countrymen. 13 Further, Bodin supported religious diversity in that Catholics should have the opportunity to embrace their faith just the Huguenots without having intolerance towards each other.By offering a narrow description of the historical period relevant to both Hobbes and Bodin and further suggest a biographical outlook of both philosophers, the main focus have been on the facts of importance for further analysis. Main section As discussed to some extent in Bodins case, it is applicable to both philosophers that they were living in a time where religion was inseparable from their political thinking. Today it may seem strange that politics of much importance was molded around religious beliefs, because we live in a time where each person is free to decide what to believe and which religion t o adhere to.During the period of discussion, the church and the state had too many common interests that a division between them seemed unthinkable. For Bodin, his thought behind his Republic was the hope to restore the splendour and serve the interest of the French Monarchy, which functioned as a cornerstone in his description of the commonwealth. 14 In accordance to Hobbes, much like in the case of Bodin, his impetus of his work De Cive lie primarily in providing a solution to the religious moral conflict prevailing in 16th, 17th century England.Bodin and the family In this section, the discussion will point to Jean Bodins concept of the state at a micro level. In Book I, chapter I of the Republic the first sentence acknowledge what Bodin understands to be the nature of the Commonwealth, namely its internal structure being organised around the ?6?

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Mas-Cadel Specialty Bicycle

Cadel distinctive feature Bicycle Management history outlines ACCT2195 Name Nguyen Thai Son ID S3296794 Lecturer Keshav Dayalani Table of Contents Executive Summary3 Introduction4 I. Cadel Specialty Bicycles (CSB)5 A. Business mission5 B. Mean of competitive advantage6 C. Key Success Factors (KSFs)8 II. Management Accounting System of CSB9 ?Personnel9 ?Scare resources10 ?Activities11 III. Performance beat & advantage System (PMRS) and its designs11 1. The factor ins to be measured12 2. A specific execution of instrument charge12 . A reward attached to the process target12 IV. Limitations of current PMRS14 A. Limitation14 B. Dysfunctional behavior15 V. Recommendation for radical PMRS16 Conclusion17 References18 Appendix20 Executive Summary Cadel Specialty Bicycle (CSB) is a successful wrinkle of which nature is made-to- rank bicycles. In other words, each bicycle of CSB is assembled in accordance with guests specification. The melodic phrase posts to target on the rec eding market in which just about people are committed cycling enthusiast.Due the success of the first store located in Doncaster, Victoria, Australia, CSB has recently puff its business organization by opening two overbold stores located in Geelong & Black Rock and each store has different emf in the dawn of development . However, CSB has faced problems of personnel & resources management because the business had non applied the suitable strategies within the expansion. Although, the company plans to implement a new management account schema (MAS) to deal with these problems, at that place still are weaknesses contained in the new MAS.Hence, the purposes of this piece are analyzing the current governing body and suggesting new suitable MAS for the business. The first materialization of the report is Background & Current position of CSB, which is used as a foundation for developing suitable MAS. The business mission of CSB, classified advertisement as distrust mark, is structure as come up as increasing the market share. CSB creates its competitive advantage based on the differentiation of product/ assist and the niche market. However, CSB has not reached the Cost-cum-Differentiation advantage yet.CSB may focus on the five key success factors (KSFs) including Proper decentalisation & measurement of managing directors performance, redeeming(prenominal) human relationship with suppliers, Establishing appropriate constituteing system & minimizing terms, Maintaining the highest level of customer atonement and Product & Service Quality The second part of the report focus on evaluating the character as well as benefits of tools/techniques of current MAS in supporting the business in term of of personnel, scare resources and activities.Next, the role of Performance measurement & Reward system (PMRS) within the business is clearly analyzed in relation to directive & motivational make up ones minds on behavior. The report withal states the lim itations of the current PMRS which potentially leads to dysfunction behaviors. Finally, the report will suggest the suitable PMRS for the business which may effectively & efficiently support CSB in the track of its success. Introduction One of the close to essential factors which make it organizations and businesses toward success is management accounting system (MAS).It is always a smart decision for business to apply integrated MAS which provides accurate analysis report by gathering financial selective information from operations (sales, inventory & speak to). As a result of having MAS, business gains sufficient advantages in streamlining operations procedures, reducing be and building capital for expansion. Refer to the case of Cadel Specialty Bicycle (CSB), the business mainly focus on selling made-to- regularise bicycles and guaranteeing the product/service quality.After the expansion (two new stores), the business appears to get into trouble with management as well as op eration. This report will demonstrate the business analysis, evaluate the current MAS as well as suggest new potential/appropriate MAS. I. Cadel Specialty Bicycles (CSB) A. Business mission Business mission, which usually reveals purpose of operation, value and priorities of company (John&Richard 2009), keister be considered as a fundamental factor in conducting appropriate MAS for the business.The pursuit criteria will clearly illustrate the current mission of CSB (build, hold, harvest, divest) * Importance of externalities One factor that operatively contributes to the potential development of CSB is the external environment. Recently, bike paths have become popular around Melbourne as people tend to reduce using cars. Therefore, in that location has been a significant growth in the market for bicycles. Utilizing the bike paths, CSB opened two new stores (Black Rock & Geelong) which seem to have great potential for development. * grocery share expectationDue to the well estab lishment, Doncaster store (touring bikes) is highly demanded by customers that provide the store many opportunities to develop. Besides, Geelong store (mountain & touring bikes) also has great potential thanks to its advantageous post although the demand is not yet as high as at the Doncaster store. As a result of having great potential, the marketplace share expectations of the two stores seem to be high. Although CSB does not own a large part of the bicycle market at the moment, the business has a substantial growth rate.Base on facts of the case, CSB aim to capture a significant proportion of this growth in the future. Boston Consulting Group Model relation Market Share (cash source) Mission = keep back Mission = Harvest Mission = Build Dog Mission = Divest High High Low Low Star Question mark money cow Market growth rate (cash user) Overall, CSB has high Market growth rate while owning low market share. Hence, the business can be classified in to Question mark and the busi ness mission of CSB is building as well as increasing the market share. B. Mean of competitive advantage free-enterprise(a) advantage is a special characteristic that a business has over its competitors, enabling the business to gain greater sales or profit within the competition. The two uncouth competitive advantage options, which have been applied by CSB, are Differentiation & Niche market. * Differentiation CSB differentiates its products & services based on certain criteria which are portion & Customer service. * Function Unlike normal bicycle business, CSB primarily applies the made-to-order function for all three stores which assemble customized bicycles based on customer specifications.In order to ensure the timing & success of this approach, a large inventory of different bicycle parts is held by each CSB stores. * Customer service CSB puts much feat on the operating customer service as well as interacting with customers. Cadel- CSB owner spends significant metre in tak ing care of stores day-to-day operations and often engages directly with customers to make sure that customers can purchase suited bikes. CSB also sets a limit for the waiting time (time for customized bicycles to be available) which are less than two days of the initial consultation.The applied post-sale service is calling the customer after a week of taking possession of CSBs products to ensure the customers satisfaction, and oblation free-of-charge changes if necessary. Additionally, free lifetime after-sales service is also offered in which customers only have to pay for parts required. * Niche Market CSB targets on specific segment of market which is cycling enthusiast through the offer of customized bicycles. This customer group willing to spend more for qualified & desirable product Business competitive advantage Relative Cost Position Cost-cum-Differentiation Advantage Stuck-in-the -middle Differentiation Advantage Low-cost-Advantage Superior Inferior Inferior Superior Re lative Differentiation Position Although CSB gains moderate differentiation advantage, the business did not consider much about the costing system (estimating price without real cost data). Therefore, CSB has not reached the Cost-cum-Differentiation advantage yet. C. Key Success Factors (KSFs) In order to construct appropriate & efficient MAS, business may consider the essence of critical KSFs which determine its success (cost and efficiency, quality, time, innovation).Gaining sufficient knowledge of KSFs will support the business to define the necessity of promoting strengths and competencies that match those factors in order to gain competitive advantage and achieve the business success (Jorge&Donald 1989). Refer to CSB- a growing business with great potential, certain KSFs would be as the following * Product & Service Quality Cadel spends considerable time in training the store manager and often personally assembles & checks the customized bicycles to ensure the Service & Product quality.As a result, CSB is currently well known as a business providing high quality, customized bicycle. * Maintaining the highest level of customer satisfaction Giving customers more than they expect is the basic concept of this issue. As Cadel believe that specialized customer service is a KSF of CSB, he put many exploits in maintaining the customer satisfaction such as calling the customer after a week of possession, offering free lifetime after-sales service & limiting the waiting time (2days). Establishing appropriate costing system & minimizing cost A weakness of CSB is that the business operates without real cost data. Hence, establishing suitable costing system has become a fundamental mission in the track of reaching success. Besides, CSB has to consider cost minimization to achieve Cost-cum-Differentiation advantage. * Good relationship with suppliers Since the expansion, the demand for supplies of CSB has increased due to the requirement of more inventories for the tw o new stores. Therefore, finding and maintaining good relationship with suppliers is also essential. Proper decentralization & measurement of managers performance It is essential that Cadel distributes the authority to store managers properly because the business structure has become more complicated since the expansion and Cadel cannot play all roles of the business. II. Management Accounting System of CSB In order to solve the problems arisen from the expansion, Cadels brother has suggested Cadel to develop a MAS which significantly supports the business management in term of personnel, scare resources and activities. The following analysis will demonstrate the roles & benefits of each tool holdd in the MAS Personnel * Supplier performance measures (SPM) SPM is a critical initiative for business relations with multiple suppliers. The main role of SPM is integrating supplier quality which helps the business have accurate visibility toward supplier delivery and avoid hidden cost d rivers from poor quality. As a result, SPM directly decreases business risks and revenue losses Besides, SPM is a vital tool for motivating improvement and ensuring that products encounter the required standards. SPM also supports in determining good suppliers so that CSB can maintain relationship with those suppliers. link KSFs Product quality Good relation with supplier * righteousness accounting system (RAS) RAS is used as an internal system which improves cost control and businesss performance. Its main role is ensuring the responsibility of individual managers toward elements of business performance in which they gain control. In RA, each store/department will be assigned certain stated goals and relevant managers will be judged on how well they meet the goals. As a result, CSB is able to detect the weak areas within the business and make correction properly Related KSF Proper decentralization & measurement of managers performance Scare resources * Net Present Value (NPV) ana lyses NPV is an efficient method used in determining capital investment decisions. A potential project should be proceeded if its NPV value is positive unless there is a superior investment option offered. NPV allows CSB to make proper investment decision and invest in worthwhile projects because NPV does not only calculate the net cash flow from the project but also considers various associated factors like time value of money, fortune cost & risk of prospective cash. Related KSFs Minimizing cost Costing system The main role Costing system within MAs is collecting, analyzing & reporting the cost data that enables the owner and managers to monitor cost for reducing wastage and misuse of resources. Within the operation of business, it is easy to identify direct costs which associate with particular activities. However, indirect costs are those incurred in common or joint objectives so it cannot be clearly identified with particular activities. In order to assign indirect cost to pro jects accurately, Activity base costing system (ABCS) should be applied.ABCS is an efficient method which calculates and reduces operating the cost by finding key activities and its cost drivers. Consequently, the cost can be assigned accurately and the costing system can operate smoothly. Overall, costing system enables CSB to view all expenditures and manage its cost effectively Related KSFs Establishing appropriate costing system & minimizing cost * Budget preparation The core role of Budget within CSB is tracking all of the money attack into the business along with all of the money going out.The work out can be designed to be detailed enough to cover numerous streams of income & expense. Establishing proper budget can significantly support the business in planning the use of resources, motivating individuals to achieve performance & supporting forecast. * Activities * Inventory management system scotch Order Quantity (EOQ) The main role EOQ model is providing the most econom ical quantity of items which CSB should order to maximize value & minimize costs when re-stocking inventory.Applying EOQ does not only help the business to reduce Storage & Holding cost but also support in maintaining sufficient inventory levels to meet customer demand. It seems that customer service can be improved as inventory is available when needed. Related KSFs Establishing appropriate costing system & minimizing cost Maintaining the highest level of customer satisfaction * Profit and loss statements (P&L) P&L is one of the major financial statements which clearly demonstrate the profitability (revenue, expenses and profit) of the CSB during a specified time interval.Hence, the basic role of P&L is indicating whether the business is profitable or not. Conducting a proper P&L can enable CSB to notice the areas needing improvement and provide an boilersuit idea of how much the business owes compared to how much it owns. Besides, a truthful P&L report can also support CSB in plan ning frontwards to the next financial period. III. Performance measurement & Reward System (PMRS) and its roles Performance measurement is a process of gathering & reporting nformation regarding the performance of the business & individuals. To be effective, Performance measurement must be combined with Reward system and the rewards provided are based on performance. The overall role of PMRS is to periodically monitor performance to judge how well the business is running and motivate the personnels performance by Reward system. Both performance measure and rewards provide directional and motivational bend on behavior. However, each element of PMRS has its own roles which complement the system.PMRS contains three elements 1. The factors to be measured The first element clearly demonstrates the factors which will be measured in order to communicate grievous aspects of the business toward employees. Thanks to that, employees are able to concentrate their work into informed aspects/a reas * Directional influence on behaviour is mainly fulfilled by the roles of the first 2 elements (Measured factors & Performance target). Within this method, employees are directed to achieve the desired behaviours. 2.A specific performance target The main mission of the second element is narrowing the targeted aspects into specific tasks/activities so that employees can focus, put effort and accomplish these tasks. Besides, the provided criteria in the system is also a base for owner/manager to provide feedback to improve future performances 3. A reward attached to the performance target The Reward system is based on the concept of attracting, retaining and motivating people. As employees can be motivated by intrinsic (e. g. elf esteem) and extrinsic rewards (e. g. bonus), monetary reward is not the only important component of the Reward system. There are other factors which also efficiently encourage employees in improving performance. Based on Theoretical Framework (Khan KU, Farooq SU & Ullah MI, 2010), there are world-widely four main independent variables of reward which are payment, promotion, recognition and benefits. Promotion seems to be the most efficient motivation as almost people tend to have ambitiousness of getting better positions in the business/company.Moreover, different reward strategies would have a different motivational match on diverse people. By providing attractive incentives, Reward system encourages individuals to actually undertake the tasks with intensive willing. According to Khan KU, Farooq SU & Ullah MI, 2010, there is a statistical significant relationship between all of the independent variables of reward with dependent variable employee work motivation, all the independent variables of reward have a positive influence on employee work motivation.Overall, Reward system plays role as a way of having people work harder. * Motivational influence on behaviour, meaning individuals are motivated to intentionally acquire the desired behaviours, is mainly achieved by the role of the third element which is Reward system. In this case, CSB applies reward scheme in term of bonus providing to each store manager up to 20% of their quarterly income * Meeting sales budget * Bonus of 2% of managers quarterly income if they meet the sales budget for each quarter. * Meeting profit budget Bonus of 10% of managers quarterly income if they meet the profit budget, prepared at the start of each quarter * Achieving favorable cost variances * Bonus of 4% of managers quarterly income if all favourable variances are less than 10% of the initial budgeted cost * Bonus of 8% of managers quarterly income if all favourable variances are 10% or more of the initial budgeted cost. * Directional influence supports individuals in focusing on the targeted areas and tasks. Besides, Motivational influence helps employees to do the work voluntarily and put much effort to successfully accomplish it.Moreover, Motivational influence is almost always less intrusive than Directional influence. As a result, the businesss personnel cannot be well managed without the combine of Directional influence & Motivational influence. IV. Limitations of current PMRS A. Limitation B. Dysfunctional behavior * Dysfunctional behavior means that individuals within the organization/business do not function properly in accordance with the organizations direction. Dysfunctional employee behaviors often occur due to the rapaciousness of individuals or date between employees interest and the organizations interest.The general purpose of Dysfunctional employee behaviors is gaining benefits (either for personal or department) from organizations gaps. * In this case, as a result of lack of measurement in input and process stage, managers have opportunities to engage in Dysfunctional behavior. It can be explained by the following situation * If there is no mechanism for monitoring the consistency between input and output, managers may provi de unreliable report which shows that they have reached the performance target and merit rewards. Lack of input measurement also leads to the problem that managers purchase low quality material to reduce operations costs in order to reach the defined cost target. Consequently, its very difficult to discover such Dysfunctional behaviors without proper measurement. V. Recommendation for new PMRS Besides the Performance measure, several(prenominal) common Reward strategies are also suggested below Conclusion As MAS is essential for businesss operation, CSB cannot successfully expand its business without proper MAS. However, the new MAS, which CSB has planned to implement, still has several weaknesses.Therefore, the main purposes of this report are evaluating the current position (Business mission, Competitive advantage & KSFs) and current MAS (including PMRS). The report also suggests the potential PMRS for the business. References Competitive Advantage, 2012, Investopedia US, viewed 28 July 2012, . Daniel, H, 2011, Benefits of NPV, BenefitOf, 27 July, viewed 28 July 2012, .John, AP II & Richard, BR 2009, Strategic management Formulation, Implementation, and Control, 11thedn. , McGraw Hill, Singapore. Jorge, AS & Donald, CH 1989, Key success factors Test of a general theory in the mature industrial product sector, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 367-382. Khan, KU, Farooq, SU & Ullah, MI, 2010, The Relationship between Rewards and Employee, Research Journal of Internat? onal Stud? es, May, return 14, pp. 37-42. Kumar, V, 2011, Costing System, Accounting Education, 14 February, viewed 27 July 2012, http//www. vtuition. org/2011/02/costing-system. html. Meer, NVD, 2010, The Importance of Competitive Advantage, Market views, 12 September, viewed 28 July 2012, http//www. sharenet. co. za/marketviews/mv_view_article. php? id=1650. Morris, K, 2012, What is A Management Accounting System, eHow Money, viewed 28 July 2012, http//www. ehow. com/facts_546 0765_management-accounting-system. html. Motivational Influences on Attendance in Your Organization, 2011, HR BLR, 1 January, viewed 27 July 2012, http//hr. blr. om/HR-news/Performance-Termination/Attendance/Motivational-Influences-on-Attendance-in-Your-Orga/. Piasecki, D, 2012, Optimizing economic order quantity (EOQ), Inventoryops, viewed 27 July 2012, http//www. inventoryops. com/economic_order_quantity. htm. Reyna, SM, 2012, Key Success Factors of Your Small Business, authority Home Biz, viewed 27 July 2012, http//www. powerhomebiz. com/vol95/key. htm. Supplier Performance Management, 2012, Metric Stream, viewed 28 July 2012, http//www. metricstream. com/solutions/supplier_performance. tm. The university of Texas, 2012, Performance Reward, tmc. edu, viewed 27 July 2012, http//hr. uth. tmc. edu/Training_Development/perplan/reward. html. Value Measurement, 2004, Performance measurement, viewed 27 July 2012, http//www. performance-measurement. net/news-detail. asp? nID=28. What is a Costing System, 2012, Wise Geek, viewed 28 July 2012, http//www. wisegeek. com/what-is-a-costing-system. htm. What Is Responsibility Accounting, 2012, Wise Geek, viewed 28 July 2012, http//www. wisegeek. om/what-is-responsibility-accounting. htm. Appendix * Porters Five Forces model for supporting an analysis of external environment Threats of New Entrants Bargaining Power of Suppliers Bargaining Power of Customers Rivalry among Industry Competitors * Porters value chain analysis for supporting an analysis of internal environment Design work Marketing Distribution Support Activities Finance, HR, Legal, IT Motivational influences A number of important motivational influences playing a strong role in encouraging employee include * Job scope.Improving or enriching the nature of a job substantially reduces absenteeism. * Stress and conflict. Levels of absenteeism are higher in situations of job stress, anxiety, tension, and lack of role clarity. * Leadership style. Your leaders styl e affects attitudes that affect absenteeism. * Co-worker relations. Mutual tolerance and the absence of tensions among co-workers have a positive effect on attendance. * Pressures to attend. The economy and job shortages will influence a person to be more conscientious about job attendance. * Work group norms.When members of a highly cohesive group view coming to work to help co-workers as a desirable work ethic, job attendance is attractive. * Personal work ethic. A high regard for work as a personal value positively affects job attendance. * Organizational commitment. Compatibility with the mission, goals, and values of the organization has a positive impact on attendance. You can affect most of these motivational factors significantly by the way you manage your department and supervise your employees. By encouraging open communications, by making employees feel needed and appreciated, by making their jobs as

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Race and Prejudice Essay

I think it affects everyone, even if it occurs at a subconscious level. I will be the first to admit that I am prejudice I judge mint daily by how they dress, talk, and look. Prejudice has a heavy psychological impact on the ones to whom it is directed at it shows the ignorance of the psyche displaying the prejudice and yes, I believe prejudice so-and-so be lessened, only when I it will never be eliminated.There is no reason for us to judge people based on their looks, they didnt get to choose to whom they were born. Yet so m both times I find myself doing this, everyone does, even if they dont admit it. Prejudice fag end have a unsubtle range of implications on the person to whom it is directed at. I believe that lots of times we dont see these effects immediately, further they show up later on in the persons life.An example of this would be a black person who grows up in an all white community. passim his life, he is made fun of because he acts white ( he tries solid in sch ool, gets good grades, is smart). This pip-squeak could always feel alone, because his black friends disown him for acting white, and his white friends are subconsciously prejudice against him scarce because he is black.This is a tough situation, and is extremely true in the lives of a lot of kids. Not to plectron on black people or eitherthing, but I heard a report about time ago that only 2% of black kids make it out of the hood. It is extremely hard for them to overcome everyone making fun of them because they dont conform to being a gangster.The person displaying the prejudice shows the ignorance of that person. Most kids get their prejudice roots from their parents at a very young years it can come from a ton of different situations where the parent makes a comment, joke, etc, about a certain group. It also can come from the environment, in which the child grows up, and different situations that the child is involved in or witnesses. That being said, it is not an excuse for the person to be racist against the entire group, be it ethnic, social, or any other grouping. Ayn Rand saysA genius is a genius, regardless of the number of morons who belong to the same race and a moron is a moron, regardless of the number of geniuses who share his racial origin. I strongly agree with this averment we must judge only on a persons productive ability. This is hard to do, but when it comes down to it, the only thing that matters is a persons ability and how well he can work.In conclusion, there is no way that prejudice will ever be abolished in any society it is futile to even try. As you can see from the previous paragraphs prejudice has a outstanding impact on a persons complex. Prejudice only shows the ignorance of the one who is displaying it, and prejudice can be lessened, but will never be absolutely destroyed.

Monday, May 20, 2019

Rise of Islam

Rise of Islam BY stall One of the greatest cultural spread experience in world history was the rise of Islam. Beginning in the Arabian peninsula and Middle east, It ruled over areas of Asia, Africa, and Europe. Islam was kindly to people In many a(prenominal) different varieties of communities. It brought valuable changes as an outcome of correspondence while stag In regards affiliating with orthodox local belief structure. Muslims urged new cultural proselytes for hundreds of years, beginning at around 700 CE.There were many conquests, far outstretched trade, and extended missionary movement. The geographical aspects of the Muslim people were plumly well habituate by 1450 CE, which was the end of the post-classical period. Salamis spread was progressive though remarkably sudden given the substantial geographics and assorted regions concerned in. So what really provoked Islam to distribute their culture throughout the globe? How did the forte of Islam become so surreal? The ans wer is military conquest, wide spread trade, political domination and phantasmal ideas.A supporter of the spread of Islam was Its religious attractiveness. Islam represented the truth. They ad many fastened rules and laws. People were tempted by Islam delinquent to peace, comfort, and security they distinguish In It. It also appealed to people that there was only one God (Allah), whom had no partner, son, companion or resemblance. The root of the word Islam Is Salem, meaning to be In peace with God. In enter B (Verses from the Curran) it reads, Those who submit to God and accept the true faith who are devout sincere, patient, humble ,charitable, and chaste. This shows that Allah was fair to those who were fair to him, not bring unjust fairness to the people of Islam. Another cause of Salamis spread was repayable to their immense military force. Islam spread vastly to other cultures in a factor of military conquest, level though the religion was forbearing of other beliefs. Musl ims rarely ever proceeded their religion with force unto people, commonly looking to charging a special tax on the opposition communities.The famous Jihad, or also known as the holy war recounted by the prophet Muhammad, was primarily used for defense of the faith. It was not used for hale conversion, even though there were minor exceptions. But the triumph of Muslim forces could generate a range In which other people found It sensible to convert, or in which they were enticed to the religion plainly because of its discernible power and accomplishment. During Muhammad death in 632 CE, a large growth of Islam spread throughout the Arabs.This growth helped resist Arabs to an outpour of conquest, and military rapidly spread through the Middle East, involving the Byzantine Empire. North Africa was one untimely conquest. An agitated median government, the caliphate, was devised for this West Asian- North African innards by Muhammad inheritors it thrived until the thirteenth century . Political conquest was a major importance to the thriving of Islam. The Islamic governments primary aim was to Institute a truly Islamic society.Islam does not ponder society to be merely an assemblage of Individuals. Rather, It reckons that society also comprises of their kind relationships and the social system In which these Individuals exist. These are perhaps the most ultimate factors of a society, as different isosceles are designated as being developed or undeveloped and complex or plain, according to march on and the structure of the overpowering political system, are all part of the compound web of social relationships that contribute to the structure of society.Therefore, an Islamic society, by visibility, is a supreme society in which social order is value and managed according to fundamental Islamic benefits, teachings and rulings. Lastly, another aspect that caused the blooming of Islam was their extensive trade. The first converts were the Sudanese merchants, c ome with by a few rulers and courtiers. The masses of rustic peasants, however, endure little grazed.In the lath century, the Lombardi interface, directed by a party of Barber nomads who were stern observers of Islamic law, gave the conversion process a new surge in the Ghana empire and past. The spread of Islam throughout the African continent was neither concurrent nor unvarying, but followed an deliberate and adaptive path. People who spoke of the Islamic religion and its ways of peace strode down the trade routes, spread head Islam to the merchants and people. In conclusion, the spread of Islam was due to the fact that they believed in peace, keeping religion stable and secure.

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Night World : Daughters of Darkness Chapter 8

She waited some other hour after he set off down theroad, heading east-doing what, she had no idea. thitherwas energy that way except two creeks andlots of trees. And her house. She hoped he was goingto tryto walk into town, and that he didnt realize how far it was. every live(predicate) right, hes g wholeness, now forget ab issue him. Youvegot a job to do, remember? A s aeri bothy dangerous one.And hes non involved. I dont believe he knows boththing ab come in what happened to Mrs. B.She got the spadeful and started down the road west.As she walked she found that she was able to define alter out of her understanding completely. Because every last(predicate) she could think of was what was waiting ahead.Im non s perplexityd to do it Im non scared, Im notscared. OfcourseIm scared. still being scared was good, it would make her careful. She would do this job quickly and quietly. Inthrough the cracking in the hedge, a little fast work with the shovel, out again before anyb ody sawing machine her.She time-tested not to picture what she was going to findwith that shovel if she was right.She approachedBurdock Farm conservatively, going north and then doubling screen southeast to come inthrough the back property. The farmland had gone wild here, taken oer by poison oak, beargrass, anddodder, besides the inevitable blackberry bushes and gorse. Tan oaks and chinquapins were abject in.Sometime soon these pastures would be forest.Im not sure I believe Im doing this, MaryLynnette thought as she stretched the hedge that surrounded thegarden. But the grotesque thing was that she didbelieve it. She was going to vandalize a neighbors propertyand probably picture at a gone bodyand she was surprisingly cool about it. Scared but not panicked.mayhap there was more secret at heart her than she realized.I may not be who Ive endlessly thought I am.The garden was phantasm and fragrant. It wasnt theirises and daffodils Mrs. B. had planted it wasnt thefireweed and bleeding heart that were growing wild. It was the bums.Mary-Lynnette stuck to the perimeter of the hedge,eyes on the tall, upright silhouette of the farmhouse.There were only two windows lit.Please dont let them understand me and please dont letme make a noise.Still feel at the house, she walked slowly, taking careful baby tinctures to the place where the earth wasdisturbed. The first couple of swipes with the shovel only locomote the soil.Okay. Put a little conviction in it. And dont watch the house theres no point. If they look out, theyregoing to enamor you, and theres nothing you can do about it.Just as she tack together her foot on the shovel, somethingwent hooshin the rhododendrons behind her.Crouched everywhere her shovel,Mary-Lynnette froze.Stop worrying, she told herself. Thats not the sisters. Its not Ash coming back. Thats an animal.She listened. A mournful maaaa came from the goat shed.It wasnt anything. It was a rabbit. DigShe got out a spadeful of dirt-and then she heardit again.Hoosh.A sniffly sound. thus a rustling. Definitely an animal. But if it was a rabbit, it was an awfully loud one.Who cares what it is? Mary-Lynnette told herself.There arent any dangerous animalsout here. And Imnot afraid of the dark. Its my natural habitat. I love the night.But tonight, somehow, she felt differently. Maybe it was just the scene with Ash that had shaken her,made her feel confused and discontented. But just now she felt almost as if something was trying to tellher that the dark wasnt any humans natural habitat. That she wasnt built for it, with her weak eyes andher insensitive ears and stifle nose. That she didnt be enormous.Hoosh.I may hold back rotten hearing, but I can hearthatjustfine. And its big. Something bigs sniffing around inbushes.What material body of big animal could be out here? Itwasnt a deer deer went snort-wheeze. It sounded largerthan a coyote, taller. A bear?Then she heard a different sound the vigorousshaking of dry, l eathery rhododendron leaves. In the film overlight from the house she couldseethe branches churning as something tried to emerge.its coming out.Mary-Lynnette clutched her shovel and ran. Nottoward the gap in the hedge, not toward the housetheywere both in like manner dangerous. She ran to the goat shed.I can defend myself in here-keep it outhit itwith the shovel.The problem was that she couldnt see from in here.There were two windows in the shed, but betweendirt on the fruitcake and the darkness outside, Mary-Lynnette couldnt make out anything. She couldntevensee the goats, although she could hear them.Dont turn on the penlight. Itll just give awayyour position. safekeeping absolutely still, she strained tohear any thing from outside.Nothing.Her nostrils were full of goat. The layers of oat straw and decomposing droppings on the floor weresmelly, and they unplowed the shed too warm. Her palms were sweating as she gripped the shovel.Ive never hit anybody not since dent and Iwer e kids fighting but, heck, I kicked a strangerthismorning .She hoped the potential for violence would comeout now when she driveed it.A goat nudged her shoulder.Mary-Lynnette shrugged it away. The other goat bleated suddenlyand shebit her lip.Oh, God-I heard something out there. The goatheard it, too.She could taste her bitten lip. It was wish well sucking on a penny. Blood tasted like copper, which, sherealizedsuddenly, tasted like apprehension.Something turn outed the shed door.What happened then was that Mary-Lynnette Something unholy was after her. Something thatsniffed like an animal but could open doors like ahuman.She couldnt see what it was-just a shadowdarkness against darkness. She didnt think ofturning on thepenlight-her only impulse was to smash out with the shovel now, to get ft before ft could get her. She wastingling with the instinct forpure, primordial violence.Instead, she managed to hiss, Who is ft? Whosthere?A familiar voice said,Iknew you were going to do t his. Ive been lookingeverywherefor you.Oh,God, soft touch. Mary-Lynnette sagged against wall of the shed, letting go of the shovel.The goats were both bleating. Mary-Lynnettes earswere ringing. augury shuffled far in.Jeez, this place smells. What are you doing inhere?Youjerk,Mary-Lynnette said. I almost brained you0You said you were forgetting all this crazy stuff. You be to me.Mark, you dont We can talk later. Did you hearanything out there? She was trying togather her thoughts.Like what? He was so calm. It made MaryLynnette feel vaguely foolish. Then his voicesharpened. Like a yowling?No. Like a snuffling. Mary-Lynnettes breath was slowing.I didnt hear anything. Wed better get out ofhere. What are we supposed to say if don comesout?Mary-Lynnette didnt know how to answer that. Mark was in a different earthly concern, a happy, shiny worldwhere the worst that could happen tonight was embarrassment.Finally she said Mark, listen to me. Im your sister. I dont have any priming coa t to lie to you, or playtrickson you, or enjoin down somebody you like. AndI dont just jump to conclusions I dont imagine things. ButIm telling you, absolutely seriously,that there is something weird going on with these lady friends.Mark undetermined his mouth, but she went on relentlessly. So now there are only two things you canbelieve, and one is that Im completely out of mymind, and the other is that its true. Do you really thinkIm crazy?She was thinking of the past as she said it, of allthe nights theyd held on to each other when their motherwassick, of the books shed read out loud tohim, of the times shed put Band-Aids on his scrapes andextra cookies in his lunch. And somehow, even though it was dark, she could sense that Mark wasremembering, too. Theyd shared so much. They would always be connected.Finally Mark said quietly, Youre not crazy.Thank you.But I dont know what to think. bear wouldnt hurtanybody. I justknow that. And since I met her, .Hepaused. Mare, its like now I know why Im alive.Shes different from any girl Ive ever known.Shes ____ shes so brave, and so funny, and so herself.And I thought it was the blond hair, MaryLynnette thought. Shows how shallow I am.She was moved and surprised by the change in Mark-but mostly she was frightened. Frightenedsick.Her cranky, cynical brother had found somebody to care about at last and the girl was probablydescended from Lucrezia Borgia.And now, even though she couldnt see him, shecould hear yearning appeal in his voice. Mare, cant wejust go home?Mary-Lynnette felt sicker.She broke off and they both snapped their heads to look at the shed window. Outside a light had goneon.Shut the door, Mary-Lynnette hissed, in a looking that made Mark dose the door to the shedinstantly.And be quiet,- she added, grabbing his arm and pulling him next to the wall. She lookedcautiously out the window.Rowan came out of the back door first, followedbyjade,followed by kestrel. sparrow hawk had a shovel.Oh. My. God.Wha ts happening? Mark said, trying to get alook. Mary-Lynnette damped a hand over hismouth.What was happening was that the girls were digging up the garden again.She didnt see anything wrapped in garbage bags this time. So what were they doing? Destroying theevidence? Were they going to take it into the houseand burn it, chop it up?Her heart was pounding madly.Mark had scooted up and was looking out. MaryLynnette heard him take a breath-and then choke.Maybe he was trying to think of an innocent explanation for this. She squeezed his shoulder.They both watched as the girls took turns with theshovel. Mary-Lynnette was impressed all over againathow strong they were. Jade looked so fragile. all(prenominal) time one of the sisters glanced around the garden, Mary-Lynnettes heart skipped a beat. Dontsee us, dont hear us, dont catch us, she thought.When a respectable mound of dirt had piled up, Rowan and kestrel reached into the hole. They liftedout the long garbage-bagged bundle Mary-Lynnett ehad seen before. It seemed to be stiff-and surprisingly light.For the first time, Mary-Lynnette wondered if it was too light to be a body. Or too stiff how longdidrigor mortis last?Marks living was irregular, almost wheezing.The girls were carrying the bundle to the gap inthehedge.Mark cursed. Mary-Lynnettes brain was racing. She hissed,Mark, stick here. Im going to follow them-Im going with youYou have to tell Dad if anything happens tome-Im going withyou.There wasnt time to argue. And something inside Mary-Lynnette was glad to have Marks strength toback her.She gasped, Come on, then. And dont make asound.She was worried they might have already lost the sistersit was such a dark night. But when she andMark squeezed through the gap in the rhododendron bushes, she saw a light ahead. A tiny, bobbingwhite light. The sisters were using a flashlight.Keep quiet, move carefully. Mary-Lynnette didntdare say it out loud to Mark, but she kept thinking itover and over, like a mantra. Her w hole consciousness was stock-still on the little shaft of light that wasleading them, like a comets tail in the darkness.The light took them south, into a stand of Douglasfir. It wasnt long before they were walking into forest.Where are they going? Mary-Lynnette thought. She could feel fine tremors in her muscles as she tried tomove as quickly as possible without making a sound. They were well-to-dothe floor of this forest wascarpeted with needles from Douglas fir and Ponderosa pine. The needles were fragrant and slightly dampand they muffled footsteps. Mary-Lynnette could hardly hear Mark walking behind her except when hehurt himself.They went on for what seemed like forever. It was be given dark and Mary-Lynnette very quickly lost anysense of where they were. Or how they were going to get back.Oh, God, I was crazy to do this-and to sustain Markalong, too. Were out in the middle of the woodswiththree crazy girls.The light had stopped.Mary-Lynnette stopped, holding out an arm th atMark immediately ran into. She was staring at thelight,trying to make sure it really wasnt moving away.No. It was steady. It was pointed at the ground.Lets get loser, Mark whispered, putt his lips against Mary-Lynnettes ear. She nodded andbegan to creep toward the light, as slowly and silently asshe knew how. Every few steps she paused andstood absolutely still, waiting to see if the light was going to turn her way.It didnt. She got down and crawled the last ten feet to the edge of the clearing where the girls hadstopped. Once there, she had a good view of what they were doing.Digging. Kestrel had shoveled the pine needles out and was working on a hole.Mary-Lynnette felt Mark crawl up beside her,crushing sword fern and woodfem. She could feel hischest heaving. She knew he saw what she saw.Im so sorry. Oh, Mark, Im so sorry.There was no way to deny it now. Mary-Lynnetteknew. She didnt even need to look in the bag.How am I going to find this place again? When I bring the sheriff ba ck, how am I going to remember it?Its like a maze in one of those ready reckoner fantasy games-Mixed Evergreen Forest in every direction,andnothing to distinguish any bit of it from any other bit.She chewed her lip. The bed of moist needles she was lying on was soft and springy-actuallycomfortable. They could wait here for a long time, until the sisters left, and then mark the trees somehow.Takephotographs. Tie their socks to branches.In the clearing the flashlight circulate showed a hand putting down the shovel. Then Rowan and Kestrelliftedthe garbage-bagged bundle-Jade must beholding the flashlight, Mary-Lynnette thought-and lowered itinto the hole.Good. Now cover it up and leave.The beam showed Rowan bending to pick up the shovel again. She began quickly covering the hole withdirt. Mary-Lynnette was happy. Over soon, she thought, and let out a soft breath of relief.And in that instant everything in the clearingchanged.The flashlight beam swung wildly. Mary-Lynnette shape herse lf, feeling her eyes widen. She could seea silhouette against the light-golden hair haloed around the face. Kestrel. Kestrel was standing, facingMark and Mary-Lynnette, her body tense and still. Listening. Listening.Mary-Lynnette lay absolutely motionless, mouthopen, trying to breathe without making a soundTherewere things crawling in the soft, springy needlebed under her. Centipedes and millipedes. She didntdaremove even when she felt something tickle acrossher back under her shirt.Her own ears rang from listening. But the forest was silent eerily dent. All Mary-Lynnette couldhearwas her own heart pounding wildly in herchest-although ft felt as if it were in her throat, too.It made herhead bob with its rhythm.She was afraid.And it wasnt just fear. It was something shecouldnt remember experiencing since she was nineor ten.Ghost fear. The fear of something youre not even sure exists.Somehow, watching Kestrels silhouette In the dark woods, Mary-Lynnette was afraid of monsters.Shehad aterrible,terrible feeling.Oh, pleaseI shouldnt have brought Mark here.It was then that she realized that Marks breathing was making a noise. Just a unclouded sound, not a whistling,more like a cat purring. It was the sound hed made as a kid when his lungs were bad.Kestrel stiffened, her head turning, as if to locate a noise.Oh, Mark, no. Dont breathe. Hold your breath-Everything happened very fast.Kestrel sprang forward. Mary-Lynnette saw her silhouette come running and jumping with unbelievablespeed. Toofast-nobody moves thatfast .. .nobody human.What are these girls?Her sight came in flashes,as if she were under a strobe light. Kestrel jumping. Dark trees all around. Amoth caught in the beam.Kestrel coming down.Protect markA deer. Kestrel was coming down on a deer. Mary-Lynnettes mind was fill up with jumbled, careeningimages. Images that didnt make sense. She had a wild thought that it wasnt Kestrel at all, but one ofthose bird of prey dinosaurs shed seen at the movies. Beca use Kestrel moved like that.Or maybe ftwasnt a deer-but Mary-Lynnette could seethe white at its throat, as pure as a lace ruffle atthe throat of a teenaged girl. She could see itsliquid black eyes.The deer screamed.Disbelief.I cant be seeing this.The deer was on the ground, delicate legs thrashing. And Kestrel was tangled with it. Her face buriedinthe white of its throat. Her arms around it.The deer screamed again. Wrenched violently.Seemed to be having convulsions.The flashlight beam was all over the place. Then it dropped. At the very edge of the light, Mary-Lynnettecould see two other figures join Kestrel.They were all holding the deer. There was one last spasm and itstopped fighting. Everything went still. Mary-Lynnette could see Jades hair, so fine that individualist strandscaught the light against the background of darkness.In the silent Bearing the three figures cradled thedeer. Huddling over it. Shoulders moving rhythmically.Mary-Lynnette couldnt see only what theywere do ing, but the general scene wasf,miliar.Shed seen iton dozens of nature documentaries. About wild dogs or lionesses or wolves. The pack hadhunted andnow ft wasfeeding.I have always tried to bea very good observer. And now, I have to believe my own eyes .Beside her, Marks breath wassobbing.Oh, God, let me get him out of here. Please justlet us get out.It was as if shed been suddenly released from paralysis. Her lip was bleeding again-she must havebittendown on it part she was watchingthe deer.Copperbloodfear filled her mouth.Come on, shegasped almost soundlessly, wiggling backward. Twigs and needles raked herstomachas her T-shirt rode up. She grabbed Marks arm.Come onlInstead, Mark lurched to his feet.Mark She wrenched herself to her knees andtried to drag him down.He pulled away. Hetook a step toward theclearing.NoJadeHe was heading for the clearing.No, Mary-Lynnette thought again, andthen shewas moving after him. They were caught now, andit reallydidnt matter what he did. Butshe wa ntedto bewith him.Jade Mark said and he grabbed the flashlight.He turned it directly on the little huddle at theedgeof the clearing. Three faces turned toward him.Mary-Lynnettes mind reeled. It was one thing toguess what the girls were doing it was another thingtoseeit. Those three beautiful faces, white in the flashlight beam with what looked like smearedlipstick ontheir mouths and chins. Cardinal red, thimbleberry color.But it wasnt lipstick or go bad thimbleberries. It wasblood, and the deers white neck was stained with it.Eating the deer, theyre really eating the deeroh, God, theyre really doing it.Some sort of her mind-the part that had absorbedhorror movies-expected the three girls to hiss andcringe away from the light. To block it out with bloodstained hands while making savage faces.It didnt happen. There were no animal noises, nodemon voices, no contortions.Instead, as Mary-Lynnette stood frozen in an agonyof horror, and Mark stood trying to get a normalbreath, Jade strai ghtened up.And said, What are you guys doing out here?In a puzzled, vaguely annoyed voice. The way youwould speak to some boy who keeps following youeverywhere and asking you for a date.Mary-Lynnette felt her mind spinning off.There was a long silence. Then Rowan and Kestrelstood up. Mark was breathing heavily, moving theflashlight from one of the girls to another, but always coming back to Jade.What areyoudoing out here thats the capitulumhe said raggedly. The flashlight whipped to the hole, then back tothe girls. What are you doing?I asked you first, Jade said, frowning. If ft hadJust been her, Mary-Lynnette would have startedtowonder if things were so awful after all. if maybethey werent in terrible danger.But Rowan and Kestrel were looking at each other,and then at Mark and Mary-Lynnette. And their expressions made Mary-Lynnettes throat close.You shouldnt have followed us, Rowan said.She looked sullen and sad.They shouldnt have beenableto, Kestrel said.She looked grim.Its beca use they smell like goats, Jade said.What are you doing?Mark shouted again, almostsobbing. Mary-Lynnette wanted to reach forhim, butshe couldnt move.Jade wiped her mouth with the back of her hand.Well, cant youtell?She turned to her sisters.Nowwhat are we supposed todo?There was a silence. Then Kestrel said, We donthave a choice. We havetokill them.