Thursday, February 28, 2019

Nursing Diagnosis and Care Essay

1 Analyze Assessment selective studyBased on the health history culture, identify the following A. Areas for focussed assessment (30 points)Provide a brief overview of those aras of strength and weakness uttermost-famed from Milestone 1 Health History. From the conversation with call forth on her medical examination history she is in denial about the occurrences that is happening in her aliveness which is making her non-compliant about victorious her medicinal drugs as prescribed. It appears that taking her medications provide bear her an unfit mother in the presence of her children gibe to JAW. Being a hospital corpsman in the Navy she is well aware of the ramifications about taking medications especially the ones that ordain help her batter these issues.B. Clients strengths (30 points) work out on areas identified as strengths related to the persons boilers suit health. patronise your conclusions with information from the textbook. JAW is in good shape according t o military regulations. She gear ups at least triad times a hebdomad which is keeping her somatogenicly in shape thereby not subjecting her to hypertension, any cardiac diseases, or joint problems at the present. I asked JAW was she awkward jawing to me about her health history and the issues that are related to her and me existence her best friend. Her health patterns are excellent compared to others because she does follow the rules and conforms to the Navy standards. She likewise watches what she consumes tostay compliant with the nutritional needs as part of her physical fitness regimen.C. Areas of concern (30 points)Expand on areas previously identified as abnormal and those that place the person at a health risk. Support your observations with data from the textbook. JAW has anxiety and depression concerns. Her failed two marriages and raising her terce children as a single mom are causing her more or less undue stress in her behavior and it could possibly lead to more or less pernicious decisions about her life choices. Stress can sometimes inspire or enhance a person performance and JAW chooses to run to help her escape what she is experiencing in her life. Fitness influences some qualities much(prenominal) as mental alertness and emotional stability because it is known that the body affects what it does to the mind. If she would force her medications as prescribed it could help her take defend of the amount of bad or negative thoughts she may be having as far as her marriages and being a single parent. She has to be pass oning to verbalize that she has a problem and that she needs help which will be the first tint to understanding what the underlying cause of her unre gaind uncertainties is truly.D. Health teaching topics (30 points) aim health education needs. Support your statements with facts from the Health History and information from your textbook. JAW does not possess any pertinent health issues that require conterminous attention but the issues that she does have can manifest into something major because she does have a diagnosis of anxiety and depression. The emotional reactions to stress may take difficulties sleeping, inability to concentrate, or in her case anxiety and depression. There are umpteen support groups out there for JAW to join such as single parents and marriage counseling to name a fewer to help her overcome her problems. She can also schedule some sessions with a psychologist to talk through her problems and try and devise a plan to egg on forward with her life. At this point I would strongly suggest that she does loss some type of counseling because her masking the stress in her life will not help her cope.2 Nursing Care be afterNext, plan your care based on your analysis of your assessment dataA. Diagnosis (30 points)Write one nursing diagnosis that reflects a anteriority need for this person. Remember a wellness diagnosis is a possibility. unproductive individual copin g related to situational crisis as evidence by anxiety, depression, and adaptation in lifestyle.B. Plan (30 points)Write one remainder and one mensural expected outcome related to your nursing diagnosis. Explain why this goal and outcome is a priority. Include cultural considerations for this client. Goal JAW will verbalized the ability to cope effectively with anxiety by instituting three upstart stress-reducing skills by April 30, 2014. Outcome JAW will be equal to identify the stressful situations in her life and adjust changes suited for her and her children. African Americans are very hesitant to seek extraneous help to solve their problems because they are regarded as private people and JAW doesnt want anyone to know that she feels might jeopardize her career.C. Intervention (30 points)Write as many nursing orders or nursing interventions that you need in order to turn over the outcome. Provide the rationale for each intervention listed. 1). Inter Provide information re garding different ways to deal with the current situations that promote anxiety olfactory modalitys and the feeling of being depressed. grass over With this information it provides JAW an opportunity to learn new coping skills. 2). Inter Teach importance on how to balance life. informer A life out of balance adds immensely to stress and anxiety. The changes affects adequate to(predicate) sleeping patterns, family time, quiet time, and overall enhancements of quality of living. 3). Inter Refer to outside resources, including support groups, psychotherapy, and community recreation involvement. shutout People have a tendency to benefit from the support of other people with similar problems and the resources ready(prenominal) will help keep her life in balance and monitoring device her stress levels. 4). Inter Encourage JAW to identify and verbalized feelings and perceptions.RAT The process of identifying feelings that remain underlying and drive behaviors enables the clients to b egin taking control of their lives. 5). Inter Teach JAW the physiologic actions of taking antidepressants and how it alleviates symptoms of anxiety and depression. RAT Many depressed people resisttaking medication because they dismay becoming addicted to the drug. However antidepressants are not addictive drugs and providing her with the information about the drugs physiologic action helps with adherence.D. Evaluation (30 points)You will not carry out your care plan so you cannot judge the effectiveness of your nursing interventions. Instead, comment on what you would look for in order to evaluate your effectiveness. I would inquire about rather JAW has started her medication regiment and if she has any questions in regards to how it will affect her as far as her family and her career. Did she make the time to seek a physiologist to help her and her family overcome these difficult times of being just the four of them and also a psychiatrist to continue to prescribe the necessary m edications? JAW will be able to discuss 3 coping techniques that she utilizes to help her feel more in control over her current situation. She will also be able to share the support system of people she can talk to when she is faced with a crisis. The way she has adjusted to her new life will ensure that she has become compliant with the medication regime and have seek the appropriate to help her overcome these issues so she can move forward.

Ownership and Sense of Self Essay

Ownership squirt be viewed in many disparate ways. Some think of monomania as a bad thing, musical composition some former(a)s think of it as a good thing. Before someone tolerate establish their beliefs on what is good and bad, the true symbolizeing of what they are macrocosm ased must be understood. This controversial question of whether monomania is positive or negative brings up a a lot much important question, What does it mean to own something?. Ownership is defined as to have possession of something. I believe ownership and sense of egotism are integrated to loafher. I think they go hand in hand with each other merely because one can own more than just a physical butt, only when as well as ideas, thoughts, skills, and fellowship.Just as the famous twentieth-century philosopher, Jean-Paul Sarte, I too believe that ownership extends much farther than tactual objects, but to intangible things as well. Such intangible things include, thoughts and ideas. lonesom e(prenominal) you can think of an original idea or thought. Nobody can put it into your head. No one can hear your thoughts besides yourself, which work on them yours. This sense of ownership extends physical objects, and involves self ownership. Ones self ownership also gives a sense of identity. The thoughts and ideas one owns, defines them and is their sense of self. non only does the ownership of thoughts and ideas provide one with a sense of their self, but as well as skills or knowledge one whitethorn obtain. Sarte believed that when one ploughs proficient in a skill or knows something thoroughly, it centre that they own that skill or knowledge. An experience I have approach that helps me to support and believe in this idea, is when I joined the volleyball game game squad at my high school. I spent the entire summer practicing volleyball at open gym, improving my skills and preparing for tryouts that were soon to come. When tryouts finally arrived I was no longer nervou s and I trusted myself to do well. This was because I had become much more knowledgeable about the sport and I own the level of skill I had worked for and needed to make it onto the team. I agnize that I was no longer trying to become a volleyball player, but I was one. The skill I have to play volleyball often defines me, whether someone is asking about myself or sees me in uniform. The skills and knowledge you obtain become your identity, and this is another example of how the relationship betweenownership and sense of self are so intertwined.I believe ownership of tangible items also determines ones sense of self. Some beg that ownership of tangible items are bad, while others believe they are good. Whether someone views it as being good or bad, it is still true. In immediatelys society, image is everything. Social classes are based on how much you own and identity is based on image. I dont completely agree with the argument made by Plato, stating that owning objects is poiso nous to a someones character, because at the end of the day objects can be taken away. I think that owning objects can only become detrimental to a persons character if one becomes more evoke in what others think and try to keep up an image more than their own personal character. I think spate can get caught up in an image and become materialistic and selfish, this exposes what type of person one is, providing insight to ones sense of self.On the other hand, owning tangible objects could also help to develop moral character, as Aristotle had said. I immediately supported this idea as I looked down and proverb the watchstrap I wear on my right wrist everyday. This bracelet is called a kara. I have owned a kara all of my life, and it serves a religious purpose to identify myself as a Sikh. This tangible object has helped me as a constant reminder for my morals, discipline, and religious faith. It is the tangible objects give care my kara that help to develop moral character. My k ara is an identification piece that shows everyone what religion I follow, which displays how tangible items identify ourselves.The relationship between ownership and sense of self is a very close one. I believe that both the tangible and intangible things in life define ourselves. I feel that people go to things such as tangible objects and intangible things such as thoughts, ideas, skills, and knowledge to not only identify themselves, but own themselves and their identities.

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

Racism in the African-American Community Essay

Abstract Racism is forthwith perceived as a friendly and baseless evil that tries to undermine certain individuals based on their peel off intensity. It is entirely evident that the U. S. silence suffers from well-nigh traces of racialism, but surprisingly, a immense majority of these cases come from the Afri flowerpot-American communities. While m whatsoever enceinte deal reconcile the opinion that the African-Americans atomic number 18 the ones that atomic number 18 always on the receiving end, new survey reveal that they be the ones who show more(prenominal) racist sort than the contorts. This newspaper enshroudes both(prenominal) of the causations that lead to racialism among the African-American communities and likewise show up p atomic number 18ntages how this transition fag came into place after the advent of the 20th century.Additionally, this paper covers the consequences of this menace and its encounter on the affable of peace that is present in todays free states. Ultimately, this text tries to draw a line on the distinctive barrier in the midst of what African-Americans call racial discrimination and how Americans perceive the homogeneous kind evil. It in like manner explains wherefore racial discrimination by itself is baseless and bears no heart and soul to the parties involved. racial discrimination 3 Racism in the African-American Community.Racism is a social evil that came as a result of slavery that began in the get together States immediately after English colonists inhabited Virginia and re importanted there until the 13th Amendment to the constitution of the U. S. was passed in 1865. During the 90s more African-Americans underwent oppression from the Americans as the peak of racialism was evident during these years more than ever. However, recent poll from Rasmussen reveal an entirely polar perspective of the current racism power in America. The report by Rasmussen indicated that many Americans b elieve that filthys atomic number 18 hence more racist than Caucasians.Additionally, the report stated that a huge portion of African-Americans believe that more minaciouss argon indeed racist than sinlessnesss, and this is backed up by Norton (2011). This report, that, ended up being skewered and mocked by any(prenominal) bulk as they saw it to be un straightforward. This calls for a serious assessment into what is the main vitrine of this drift into racism in the African-American conjunction and how this leave alone impact great deals relationship. Also, it pushes for the need to better understand how racism itself man vulcanized to stay alive through the years despite the particular that such practices were long left behind in the recent years.Reasons for Racism Clearly, the unintelligible trail of racism in African-Americans can be coined from the fact that blacks depression faced oppression from the exsanguinouss and this is what conduct to the ill-bred fe eling among African-Americans. However, there are up to three more reasons why African-Americans are turning out to be more racist than Caucasians. These happen to be the most flagrant and thus top the list when it comes to the ciphers that result into racism. RACISM 4 First, racism in the African-American residential district may merely be as a result of different stereotypes. The media is in any case responsible for fueling this kind of attitude towards.African-Americans since it is through televisions, radios, and the internet that most muckle discover the inherent menace. Ornelas et al. (2009) maintain that whenever unfledged African-Americans are undecided to certain stereotypes, they tend to mimic most of these traits and in turn become minus towards people from new(prenominal) races. In fact, most of these stereotypes are surprisingly among the influential African Americans in the country. During the 50th anniversary of Martin Luther King Juniors historic speech, bla ck activists displayed exactly this kind of behavior.This was evident through Martin Luther King III who use this opportunity to stir up racial hatred instead of honour the work of his father. A nonher reason for the prevalence of racism amongst the African-American community is the unfamiliarity that is present among newborns and how they are treated in the real world. This is belike the main reason why African-Americans are slowly displaying racist behavior (Okazaki, 2009). However, this doesnt always happen, but totally after the innocent party has been brainwashed by negative stereotypes.A workaround for this is to promise that children are exposed to people from different races at a young age so that they could get employ to being around people who they deem different. This additionally helps in counterbalancing any negative and untrue stereotypes that may present themselves in the future. Selfishness, couple with pain and anger, is excessively another valid reason wh y racism is on the rise among African-Americans (Lambert, 2009). Selfishness may create depicted itself among lily-white people in the past, tho, the case is different today.The sad truth is that this selfishness conduct to the creation of negative stereotypes that ultimately led to a new line of different-minded persons (Martin, 2011). Also, selfishness comes in when an African-American would feel more RACISM 5 compelled to pass off more prison term around people of the same skin affectation because they he/she may nominate been exposed yet to African-Americans during childhood age. Selfishness coupled with rage for the people who call ined pain on their forefathers leads to hatred that is directed to white people.Why Racism among African-Americans Will Not End Soon Recently, celebrated television icon Oprah Winfrey stepped up to state that racism leave only end when old racists perish (Newsbusters. org, 2014). While this sounds logical from one perspective, it fails to address the fact that these stereotypes will never arrest to exist any time soon. In most cases, racists will always give birth to racists and the regular recurrence is unceasing. Therefore, despite starts to curb racism in the African-American community, this menace is still too far from being over as new racists will always come back to replace their mothers and fathers.It is also worth noting that this doesnt only happen among the African-Americans, but also among the whites as well. Another reason why racism among the African-Americans is far from being over is because they are seen to institutionalize so much emphasis on themselves whenever the boy racism is mentioned.During the same interview that was conducted by BBC Friday, Winfreys comment Are there places where people still get terrorized just because of the color of their black skin color? kick upstairs showed how most people only view racism in the eyes of how blacks are treated. Looking at the problem this narr owly makes it more difficult to end the menace as the racism chain wint end if everyone simply defended their skin colors (Bonilla-Silva, 2010). In sum, it can be seen that racism in the African-American community can only be contained but for certain not dealt aside with within a year. RACISM 6.How Racism Can Be Contained The fact that racism is not ending in the near future doesnt necessarily spurious that nothing can be done more or less it. It will certainly take years for the world to heal from this habit, but there are small but significant ways of ensuring that racism slowly fades remote in the African-American communities. The first is by educating young African-Americans to reject any form of history of America that has elements of slavery in it (Shelby, 2009). By reminding the blacks about slavery may induce a feeling of resentment towards white people despite the fact that slavery ended decades ago.African Americans also bear the responsibility of desisting from usi ng derisive words such as nigger or any variations associated to it (Cone, 2010). This is because when blacks utter these words, they also tend to inflict the same kind of attitude in people from other races. Additionally, African-Americans should cease supporting black-only institutions or media houses such as BET and Ebony magazine. Generally, anything that depicts the word black should be avoided since it strikes a line between how different Caucasians are from African-Americans, something that is not true (Boykin, 2012).Finally, African-Americans should learn to appreciate the art of decent dress and totally avoid the use of Ebonics, an African-American slang that is widely used among black individuals. While this may seem far-fetched, it is one step away from ending racism since it shows that even African Americans are trying to pop off in with the whites and simply not creating a larger barrier. Collaboration with faithfulness enforcement agencies will also be a huge step b ecause this additionally shows that they too are concerned about the well-being of their neighbors and their security as well. RACISM 7 Consequences of Racism.Should African-American racism race, there are a number of things that could happen. Hatred between African-Americans and whites would cause a drift between them, and this could comfortably spread to people from other races as well. The levels of cooperation would plummet and at the end of the day, nothing would get done (Pieterse, 2010). Other than stirred levels of cooperation, it is credibly that some people might get displaced from their homes especially when lands start being claimed by the original inhabitants of a place. Discrimination also leads to poor kind health.In 2009, a Cornwell News Study conducted a study on the make of racism and results showed that poor mental health is possible and it comes as a result of chronic exposure to variety (Brondolo, 2009). Ultimately, there would be total havoc if racism wer e to have its way for there would be zero tolerance for someone with a different skin color regardless of that persons character. Wars could easily erupt between black individuals and white individuals, and a drift will end up incapacitating collaboration between people and thus resulting to a sluggish economy. In summary, there is no place for racism today.It has proved to be a social evil that discriminates individuals based on their color rather than character. Racism, however is seen to come from three main factors which include unfamiliarity among people of different outlooks, selfishness among people of different colors who only wish for their people to benefit, and the nominal head of certain stereotypes that are transfixed to the racial practice. It is also mandatory to spot the fact that racism is not an evil that could possibly end nightlong because certain individuals have inclined it to a specific group of people and not everyone in general.As such, there will always be complaints regarding racist behavior since most individuals are readily RACISM 8 prepared to cry out for their rights without considering that other people may be facing big challenges than them. One way of containing racism would be to ensure that the racist stereotype is dealt away with completely or segregated from children who could easily pick up the negative racist behavior from their elders. Additionally, African-Americans also have a big grapheme to play in ending this contrast since they seem to be creating a drift between black individuals and white individuals when they only support their brands such as the BET channel and the commonplace Ebony magazine.The consequences of racism in the African-American community are also grave as they can result to a much bigger drift between whites and blacks in which it would be easy for some people to be displaced from their homes and even be denied jobs. Possibilities of wars are also very steep since there would be zero tol erance to a person who doesnt respect another person just because of their skin color. RACISM 9 Annotated Bibliography Bonilla-Silva, E. (2010). Racism Without Racists Color-blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in the United Statesnew Chapter on the Obama Phenomenon.Rowman & Littlefield. In this declare, Bonilla-Silva, E outlines how racism can persist without the presence or racists themselves. It shows the reality of racism in todays world and explains the roots of racism and racial inequality in the United States with a lot of emphasis on U. S. president Barrack Obama and the challenges that are faced at the presidential level. Boykin, K. (2012). ONE MORE RIVER TO CROSS (BLACK AND risible IN AMERICA). Boykin, K explains the different challenges that blacks have to face when set abouting their true identicalness in the U.S. and what life means for them in the U. S.The daybook goes further to explain how gay African-Americans find it challenging to fit in a wo rld that already has more than equal hurdles to cross and enough reasons to make the weak quit. Brondolo, E. , ver Halen, N. B. , Pencille, M. , Beatty, D. , & Contrada, R. J. (2009). Coping with racism A selective look into of the literature and a theoretical and methodological critique. Journal of behavioral medicine, 32(1), 64-88. This book gives an overview on the way that African Americans try to cope with the kind of racism that they are subjected to in the U.S.It greatly focuses on the impact of this kind of discrimination on the African Americans and what this means for them. Brondolo, E also highlights key factors that cause this racism. Cone, J. H. (2010). A black theology of liberation. Orbis Books. Cones A black theology of liberation highlights the Christian-based perspective of oppressed blacks but mainly looks at the Cones own reflections on black theology. The book goes up to explain how racism can be ridded and it also looks at some of the roots of racism itself. Cone also relives the liberation process that led to the freedom of the blacks, but the book also highlights the hidden traces of racism that are still evident today. Lambert, S. F. , Herman, K. C. , Bynum, M. S. , & Ialongo, N. S. (2009).Perceptions of racism and depressive symptoms in African American adolescents The role of perceived academic and social control. Journal of youth and adolescence, 38(4), 519-531. This book reviews some of the underlying factors that lead to depression in African American adolescents as a result of heavy subjection to discrimination from racism. The book also briefly touches on some of the causes of racism and explains how racism develops in young people and its impact as they become older. Martin, M. J. , McCarthy, B. , Conger, R. D. , Gibbons, F. X. , Simons, R. L. , Cutrona, C. E. , & Brody, G. H. (2011).The enduring significance of racism Discrimination and delinquency among black American youth. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21(3), 662-6 76. Martin, M. J. and other writers analyze the impacts of racism in the African American community and explains its significance in cultivating the kind of peace that is evident in todays time. His main focus, however, lies in the discrimination of black American RACISM 10 youth by the whites and what this causes in the long run.He establishes how the negative stereotypes are formed as a result of the discrimination that the youths face. Newsbusters. org. (2014). Oprah racists have to die for racism to end newsbusters. org online Retrieved from http//newsbusters. org/blogs/noel-sheppard/2013/11/15/oprah-racists-have-die-racism-end Accessed 8 Feb 2014. This denomination outlines a transcript from an interview between Oprah Winfrey and BBC Friday regarding racism.In the article, Oprah is asked about her views on racism and various ways in which she thinks would put an end to the perpetual menace that has crippled our world today. The article also outlines an important factor that s hows why racism wont end soon, and how the African Americans are fueling the perpetuating racism act. Norton, M. I. , & Sommers, S. R. (2011). Whites see racism as a zero-sum feeble that they are now losing. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6(3), 215-218. Norton, M. I. , & Sommers, S. R. reveal the truth behind what whites really perceive as racism today and the effects of racism in a world that has moved way ahead of racism.The ii authors go further to explain why racism among the whites is baseless and bears no real truth or inner meaning other than the fact that it is a social evil that once existed in the past. Okazaki, S. (2009). Impact of racism on ethnic minority mental health. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4(1), 103-107. Okazaki explains the effects of racism on the mental health of the minority in the state. He also outlines some of the other non-health related mishaps that come as a result of social oppression. In his book, he states what would eventually happen if racism were to go on without showing any signs of ending soon.He however focuses on the effect this would have on the ethnic minority. Ornelas, I. J. , Amell, J. , Tran, A. N. , Royster, M. , Armstrong-Brown, J. , & Eng, E. (2009). Understanding African American mens perceptions of racism, male gender socialization, and social jacket crown through photovoice. Qualitative health research, 19(4), 552-565. This book tries to understand African American mens perceptions of racism and the new trend of some African Americans feeling more racially discriminated than people of other races. It also highlights some of the reasons that lead to the prevalence of this notion among African Americans. Ornelas also explains why racism is a social evil that cannot be expelled overnight.Pieterse, A. L. , & Carter, R. T. (2010). The role of racial identity in perceived racism and psychological stress among Black American adults Exploring traditional and alternative approaches. Journal of Ap plied Social Psychology, 40(5), 1028-1053. Pieterse, along with Carter seek to understand how racism is perceived by African American individuals aged over 21 years. Their book also strives to find the deeper meaning as to why racism is a bigger matter than we thought of it.It also explains reasons why getting rid of racism would be a great feat. RACISM 11 Shelby, T. (2009). We who are dark The philosophical foundations of black solidarity. Harvard University Press. We who are dark tries to relive the African American history in an attempt to unite blacks. It emphasizes on the importance of dealing away with racism and nutrition in unity as one big family. Shelbys book also highlights the key differences between the perceptions of both whites and blacks with regard to racism. It also shows us how history has helped in cultivating black solidarity.

Prejudice in “Of Mice and Men” Essay

Prejudices are the ch per tidingsals forged by ignorance to n single work force apart. Marguerite Gardiner. In society, both modern and in the onetime(prenominal), loss has been a beast of thinking and labeling a group of race, people, class and nicety in order to distinguish ones superiority and dominance from one a nonher, sole(prenominal) is simply a way to judge without gathering valid facts. In Of Mice and hands by John Steinbeck, we see that preconceived idea was just as rampant in the 1930s. In the novel, prejudice is demonstrated on 3 different levels racial, sexual and well-disposed. It is shown how these prejudices generate false perceptions that although meant to aid, do no such levelheaded as their end result is clouding the truth.Racial prejudice is most signifi goatt when describing Crooks, who happens to be the steadfast buck for the farm. Crooks is also a down(p) man with a back disability, hence the reason he is c altogethered Crooks. While most of the different shapeers live in the same heavens and attend to jobs that are quite similar, Crooks is forced to live by himself, work alone in the stables and is almost never in contact with both of the other characters. People such as curlys married cleaning woman go as far as to ridicule Crooks and even relish down at him simply for the fact that he is a Black man with a disability who is a laborer. In one instance, curlings Wife threatens Crooks by telling him Listen, Nigger, you cognize what I smoke do if you open your trap, I could get you strung up on a tree so easy it aint risible (Steinbeck, 98).The open brutality of this comment shows that even a woman, who would normally not have much or whatever say during this time in the 1930s, is still considered higher in social class than an African-American man. vigour is known about him as a person by any(prenominal) of the other farm attendants, save the prejudices that in this case are tout ensemble false support propel a gap surrounded by them, when one does not need to be. Although he may be physically handicap, he is just as capable as any of the others. As a result of being an outcast at the farm, Crooks has become very stranded and disengaged with the other members.When Lennie enters Crooks cabin in order retrieve the puppies, Crooks lashes out and tells Lennie I aint wanted in the bunk room and you aint wanted in my room (Steinbeck,124). This comment shows that Crooks has become bitterly and alone because of the prejudice constantly being aimed at him when there is no reason for the way he is treated. He is a great boilersuit example of racialprejudice in Of Mice and Men and society, both past and present, in which a African-American male, who is as capable as any man of another color is denied the same opportunities because of stereotypes and perceptions which can only be supported with biased false facts.Sexual prejudice is strong when Curlys Wife is a part of a scene. Curlys Wife also happens to be the only female that is currently occupying the office staff of work that the novel is set in. Curlys Wife is presented as a character who tends to be very friendly with all the men on the farm and enjoys the attention she gets because her hubby, Curly does not give her the list of attention that she wants, so she finds it with others. Curlys Wife is often avoided by all other who work at the farm because she is a woman who could get them in a lot of trouble. Curly is the boss son and Curlys Wife being the daughter-in-law always gets her way and can have any man in the farm fired without reason. She got the gist goin all the time on everybody. I bet she even gives the stable buck they eye. I dont know what the hell she wants (Steinbeck,51). cosmos a woman, there is already significant amount of sexual prejudice directed to her and the fact that she is very flirtatious with the other men come along strengthens their perception of her. They all try to remain as calm as possible, careful not to give her the wrong idea cause they know the trouble that she could get them in. In actuality it appears that Curlys Wife only craves attention from the other men and nothing sexual because of the lack of her husband to give her the attention that she wants. The idea of her wanting something only sexual and not spiritual shows the prejudice associated with gender in this novel and how its falsehood prevents a lonely woman from engaging and connecting with others on a mental level. evenly important is the Social prejudice towards characters such as glass over and Lennie in Of Mice and Men. Candy is very old and not capable of doing much slightly the farm but is still kept around to do the wide-eyed chores that the others are seen as more of a waste of time for others. These unreserved chores are envied by others and this jealousy helps create a division between Candy and the others. Candy also has a dog that in some ways is similar to him The dog aint no good to himself. I wisht somebodyd shootme if I got old an a cripple (pg. 45). They are both described as being old, withered, missed and in many ways more of a nuisance who would do more good dead than alive. Socially being hated by the majority of the men at the ranch shows the prejudice that is directed without any reason, but simply motivated by jealousy.In the instance of Lennie, social prejudice is strongest evident in the perception others have of him because in their eyes, all they see is a big oaf incapable of accomplishing anything intelligent and only kept around for his strength. Before meeting Lennie and even engaging him in conversation, his position has already been established at the Ranch. With Curly we see that Hes uniform a lot of little guys. He hates big guys. Hes alla time picking scraps with big guys. Kind of like hes mad at em because he aint a big guy (pg. 26). Regardless of his ability to be of help at the farm, Curly already establishes his posi tion on Lennie even though he has had no significant direct contact or comely time to accurately depict Lennie as a person and not just a big man physically.Not only Curly, but other members of the farm also have decided Lennies touch at work before fully knowing him. He is left-hand(a) out of card games, left back at the ranch when George and the others go out to hand more important jobs. Being considered a elementary minded men with little use who spend their days vie with and day dreaming about rabbits or sweeping after others, Lennie and Candy have become outcasts in the sense that one of them is perceived to be mentally unstable and added to the fact that he is physically strong, while the other one is a nuisance who many could live without, make them both isolated and all the more reason to be avoid and singled out.Of Mice and Men is a brilliant novel in demonstrating that prejudice is a tool that people use to become more familiar with other individuals in order to overco me the fear of uncertainty. However, the ending result is that it puts distance between the person and the one they judge because it is not fact, but perception that is altogether untrue. Prejudice is simply the reasoning of a fool to make themselves timbre secure.

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

Feminism And Gender Equality In The 1990’s

Over every last(predicate), the repairs and status of wo custody lose improved call upably in the last century however, gender equality has recently been threatened in spite of appearance the last decade. Blatantly s cost laws and practices be slowly being eliminated spell social perceptions of womens roles continue to stagnate and even degrade back to handed-down capricels. It is these social perceptions that challenge the evolution of women as equal on all levels.In this study, I will argue that clear-sighted and glaring sexism continues to exist throughout educational, economic, Women who carefully follow their expected roles may never ecognize sexism as an oppressive force in their liveness. I find umpteen parallels amidst womens experiences in the nineties with Betty Friedans, in her essay The Way We Were 1949. She dealt with a fiat that expected women to fulfill certain(a) roles. Those roles completely disregarded the needs of educate and make business women and scientific women.Actually, the subtle message that society gave was that the amend fair sex was I remember in particular the searing effect on me, who once defineed to be a psychologist, of a story in McCalls in December 1949 called A Weekend with Daddy. A little missy who lives a lonely feel with her m new(prenominal), divorced, an intellectual feel-it-all psychologist, goes to the acres to croak a weekend with her father and his new wife, who is wholesome, happy, and a good get and gardener. And there is love and laughter and growing flowers and hot clams and a gourmet cheese omelet and square dancing, and she doesnt want to go lieu.But, human her poor mother typing away all by herself in the lonesome apartment, she keeps her guilty secret that from now on she will be living for the moments when she can escape to that dream home n the arena where they know what life is all some. (See I lose often consulted my grandparents closely their experiences, and I find t heir historical perspective enlightening. My grandmother was pregnant with her thirdly child in 1949. Her work experience included interior jut out and modeling womens clothes for the Sears catalog.I asked her to read the Friedan essay and let me know if she felt as moved as I was, and to share with me her experiences of sexism. Her neighboring(a) re accomplishment was to point out that Betty Friedan was a college educated woman and she had certain goals that never interested me. My grandmother, though growing up during a era when women had few social rights, express she didnt experience oppressive sexism in her life. However, when she describes her life accomplishments, I feel she has spent most of her life fulfilling the expected roles of women sooner of pursuing goals that were in general reserved for men.Unknowingly, her life was controlled by traditional, sexist set prevalent in her time and still prevalent in the nineties. cardinal years after the above article from M cCalls magazine was written, the domineering motor hotel decided whether women should take over a right to an abortion in hard roe v. Wade (410 U. S. 113 (1973)). I believe the decision was made in favor of womens rights mostly because the court made a progressive decision to consider the woman as a human who may be motivated by other things in life than and being a mother.Justice Blackmun delivered the Maternity, or additional offspring, may force upon the woman a distressful life and future. Psychological harm may be imminent. psychic and physical health may be taxed by child care. at that place is also a distress, for all concerned, associated with the unwanted child, and there is the enigma of convey a child into a family lready unable, psychologically and otherwise, to care for it. In other fictitious characters, as in this one, the additional difficulties and continuing stigma of unwed motherliness may be involved. I feel the court decision of hard roe v. Wade would non have been made in 1949.Even in 1973, it was a progressive decision. The problem of abortion has existed for the entire history of this country (and beyond), but had never been addressed because discussing these issues was not socially acceptable. A enculturation of not discussing issues that have a profound impact on women is a culture that encourages women to be powerless. The right of abortion became a major issue. beforehand 1970, about a million abortions were done every year, of which exactly about ten thousand were legal. Perhaps a third of the women having illegal abortions mostly poor people had to be hospitalized for complications.How many thousands died as a expiry of these illegal abortions no one really knows. But the illegalization of abortion all the way worked against the poor, for the rich could manage either to have their baby or to have their abortion under A critic of the womens motion would quickly cue us that omen have a right to decline trades un ion and sex, and pursue their individual interests. However, I would argue that the social pressure women mustiness endure if they do not conform to their expected role is unfair. The problem goes beyond social conformity and crosses into government intervention (or lack thereof).The 1980s cut the pendulum swing against the womens movement. Violent acts against women who sought abortions became common and the government was unsympathetic to the victims. in that location are parallels between the Southern Blacks urbane rights movement and the womens movement Blacks have long been ccustomed to the blanched government being unsympathetic to boisterous acts against them. During the well-behaved rights movement, legal achievement seemed only to come when a white civilized rights activist was killed. Women are facing similar disregard presently, and their movement is rattling one for civil rights.A national campaign by the internal Organization of Women began on 2 March 1984, d emanding that the US Justice department investigate anti-abortion terrorism. On 1 August federal authorities in the long run agreed to begin to monitor the violence. However, Federal Bureau of Investigation director, William Webster, declared that he saw no evidence of terrorism. Only on 3 January 1985, in a pro-forma statement, did the President criticize the series of bombings as violent anarchist acts but he still refused to term them terrorism.Reagan deferred to Moral Majoritarian Jerry Falwells sequent campaign to have fifteen million Americans wear armbands on 22 January 1985, one for every legal abortion since 1973. Falwells anti- abortion outburst epitomized Reaganisms orientation course We can no longer passively and quietly wait for the Supreme Court to change their mind or for Congress to pass a law. Extremism on the right was no vice, moderation no virtue.Or, as Hitler explained in Mein Kamph, The very first essential for success is a perpetually incessant and reg ular mesh of violence. (See This mentality continued on through 1989 during the Webster v. reproductive Health Services (109 S. Ct. 3040 (1989)) fictitious character.The Reagan Administration had urged the Supreme Court to use this case as the basis for overturning Roe v. Wade. (See Endnote 5) It is disturbing that the slow gains achieved by the womens movement are so volatile and endangered when conservative dministrations gain a majority in government. To put the problem into perspective a womans right to have an abortion in this country did not come until 1973. slight than two decades later, the president of the United States is pushing to take that right away.It seems blatant that society is bent on putting women in From the above examples, it appears American culture prefers women as non- professional, non-intellectual, homemakers and mothers. This mentality is not easily resolved, because it is introduced at a young age. Alice Brooks experienced inequality on the basis of her hotfoot and her sex. In her autobiography, A Dream Deferred, she recalls the reaction of her father when she brought up the idea of college to him I found a scholarship for veterans children and asked my father to sign and impart proof that he was a veteran.He refused and told me that I was only release to get married and have babies. I needed to stay home and help my mother with her kids. My brother needed college to support a family. not only was I not going to get any help, I was also tagged as selfish because I wanted to go This is another example of women being labeled as selfish for absentminded the same opportunities as men. Alice Brooks is a very courageous woman seemingly able to overcome any oppression she may encounter. During her institution to our class, she said that women who succeed in male dominated fields are never mediocre they are extraordinary achievers.Her insight encapsulates much of the subtle sexism that exists today. I feel that no one can truly be equal in a society when only the extraordinary achievers are allowed to succeed out of their This attitude of rising blatant and subtle attacks on womens civil rights is further exemplified in recent reactions to affirmative action plans. These plans have been devised to try to give women and minorities an opportunity to participate in traditionally white male dominated areas.However, we see the same trends in legal action for the use of affirmative action plans as we saw in the 1980s backlash against the Roe v. Wade decision. A few interesting points were presented in the case, Johnson v. superman Agency, Santa Clara (480 U. S. 616 (1987)). Mr. Paul E. Johnson filed suit against the Santa Clara County Transportation Agency when he was denied a promotion, looking at the companys affirmative action plan denied him of his ivil rights. Some interesting facts were presented in this case Specifically, 9 of the 10 Para-Professionals and 110 of the 145 Office and Clerical Workers wer e women.By contrast, women were only 2 of the 28 Officials and Administrators, 5 of the 58 Professionals, 12 of the 124 Technicians, none of the Skilled Crafts Workers, and 1 who was Joyce of the 110 Road Maintenance Workers. (See Endnote 7) The above statistics limn women have been considerably underrepresented at the Santa Clara County Transportation Agency. These numbers are not uncommon and are found throughout business. It is interesting to note the underway popular perception is that affirmative action precludes white males from finding employment with companies that implement these plans.The truth is in the numbers, however. The fact that Mr. Johnson felt he was denied his civil rights because an equally qualified woman was given a promotion, instead of him, is just a small window into the subtle sexism that exists today. Most critics of affirmative action do not consider the grossly unequal numbers of men in management and professional positions. Secondly, it never seem s an issue of debate that a woman may have had no other previous life pportunities in these male dominated areas.I do not intend to argue that affirmative action is good or bad, but only wish to point out that the current backlash against these programs is heavily grow in sexism and racism. Often blatant violence or unfair acts against a group of people will cause that group to pull in concert and empower themselves against their oppressors. The womens movement has made large steps to eliminate many of these blatantly sexist acts in the last century. Now the real hindrance is upon us subtle acts of sexism and the degrading social roles of women in todays onservative culture.Alice Brooks so eloquently described her experiences with inequality, stating, the worse pain came from those little things people said or did to me. As these little things accumulate in the experience of a young woman, she increasingly finds herself powerless in her relationships, employment, economics, and s ociety in general. The distaff child has as many goals as the male child, but statistically she is unable to realize these goals because of the obstacles that society sets in front of her. Society and media exertion to create an illusion that women have every right that men enjoy.

Benefits of an online business presence Essay

In this task I am going to explain the developments in meshing technology, describe the benefits of an online front and give models of military chastenes that enjoy these benefits and finally explain the advantages of to caperes of having an online figurehead alternatively than having a purely offline presence. Broadband and new(prenominal) developments Nowadays, broadband connections alter data to be transferred much faster than narrowband. The connection does not haul up a normal earph bingle line. The holdr jackpot get get online by an ADSL connection, a cable line, wireless or via satellite dish. withal the cyberspace is low cost and is increasing in rush which benefits the commerce online. The impertinently portable devices such(prenominal) as PDA flip the user easy internet access at all era. 80% of the UK piece of ass get broadband by ADSL and cable. Most of throng use internet every day which enables a great shargon of data. prep be payments The incre ase of security enables the use of recognise/debit humour facilities. tho the newspapers and magazine headlines ab show up fraud and hackers quite obviously put concourse off.To be secured, all the online payments necessity to be private and confidential between the buyer and the removeer, conveyed intact and with fall out any variegates during transmission and erased from the system after the change has been completed. The banks are increasing the security of the debit/credit cards of the user. To grease ones palms an item online the user need to key in the password and the conflict of birth. Secure Electronic Transaction (SET) is a standard protocol for securing credit card transactions over insecure net whole caboodle, the Internet.SET is not itself a payment system, but rather a set of security protocols and formats that enables users to employment the existing credit card payment infrastructure on an light network in a secure fashion. When the cardholder buys onlin e the credit card friendship authenticates the card via digital signature. This proves that the cardholder is genuine. Web authoring tools Nowadays at that place are a number of web authoring tools such as the Microsoft FrontPage program which enables the user to manufacture a web rate without any specialist knowledge.There are other programs such as the Dreamweaver, Fireworks and Flash technology used to create the effects and invents in a website. Businesses flush toilet easily build their website, which enables them to create a attend to online. Benefits of an online presence A web line of products presence start worldwide round visibility which means they never close and are useable from any repair in the world at 24 hours 7 days a week. This benefit freighter increase the chance of profession of the website.Some fonts of websites that enjoy this benefit are www.sainsburys. co. uk, www. amazon. co. uk and www. argos. co. uk. Some notees operating online have oppor tunity of expansion to access to a wide range of guests curiously from abroad. If the business offers an excellent service the opportunity is maximised. But there are worries for archetype the tariff barriers, quotas and environmental regulations. This is not a problem in the European Community as the goods female genital organ be freely traded between member states. Some websites that enjoy this benefit are www. ebay. com, www. hp. com, www. dell. com.A lessened business with a good service and well designed can compete with larger businesses. There is an equality of presence regardless of size of business. The costumer never looks on the size of the business only on the service and crossroad provided. Therefore a small business can compete with a larger one. Some websites that enjoy this benefit are www. zonepoint. co. uk and www. computeradvicecentre. com. A web business presence has the benefit of a fast response to node interest. But some firms dont get by advantage o f this benefit.A web can provide several opportunities for customer contact for example the email messages. The repair of response is very important. A response over the internet is faster than the response by phone or letter. An online business presence enjoying this benefit is www. ebuyer. com. A web business presence has the opportunity to analyse online competition. It is quicker and easier to compare competitor activities online than by visiting their stores or obtaining selective information offline. Also the internet enables businesses to get wind new competitors and their market share.Businesses operating online have opportunity to keep up with customers. Businesses can check competitors status and then they can alter the product or service offered, speed of the delivery or the design of the website. The internet has made the life much easier. Achieving a responsive incorporate supply twine A supply chain contains every angiotensin converting enzyme business that is i nvolved in the eventual supply of a product or service. But there are problems associated with the supply chain. If the chain is huge the price to the customer may be high and the chain is ordinarily slow to respond to a rapid change.To combat these problems businesses tried to change the supply chain to shorten it, this is done by cutting out or by passing as many intermediaries, and to integrate it, to speed the things by changing the information in one stage to another. An example of business that has a simple and short supply chain is dell. Dell manufactures computers and sells them online directly to the buyers. This means there are no wholesales and no need for retail sleuths. This speeds things up and reduces the final price to the customer. If the businesses improve their supply chain there many benefits that follows.Businesses can offer punctual delivery as a sales feature. The seller will have more control over delivery if the supply chain is short and integrated. One example of a business operating online that has this benefit is Dell. co. uk Other benefit is the opportunity for buying the products online. Businesses can improve the product delivery and reduce the time between the order and supply. Customers can check stocks online. If an item is currently out of stock many businesses put a note on the site and email the customer when stocks are replenished.One example of a business that has this benefit is ebuyer. com. Ebuyer is a business like Dell. It sells directly to the buyer there is no need for retail shops. Online order tracking is another benefit. It enables the customers to check every stage of their order from the suppliers website. The system sends mechanically email to customer informing about tracking order. In other systems customers can check at any time the progress of the order. Ebuyer. com is a business operating online that enjoys this benefit. Businesses can reduce overheads and labour costs.A business that has a short and an integrated supply chain has more possibilities to deal the orders more cheaply. This is because there is likely to be less staff call for to process paperwork relating to customer orders, fewer shops required if the business deals directly to the customer, fewer intermediaries required and fewer staff needed to deal with the customer. Ebuyer and Dell are two examples of businesses that enjoy this benefit. Reduced stockholding Businesses can improve bullion flow through fewer bad debts. Cash flow improves if the customer is paying as they make a purchase.The transactions over the internet are done by credit or debit card. The card payment is always checked and authorised before the goods are dispatched. Ebuyer. com can choose where to locate. Ebuyer only trades over the internet. It has more freedom in choosing the location than other types of businesses. A business can save money with affiliations with ISPs and portals. This works as the following a business wants to show the location of the company, the business can do an affiliation using multimap to show it. One example is the BT website. Other benefit is the accessibility to different users.Disabled and housebound people have more advantages to shop at radical over the internet. Also people who live in rural and remote areas dont need to worry to go a shopping trip. Only one click can save money and time. Nowadays is increasing availableness of public web access points. The internet kiosks and cybercafi s are a common feature in all large towns and cities. They enable anyone without a pc, or away from home, to access the internet easily. Also the pocked Pcs and the portable computers, laptops, enable the access to internet at any time.Advantages of to businesses of having an online presence rather than having a purely offline presence Tesco are ale to sell a lot more groceries as they have both their stores and the home delivery service than Primark which only sells its product to customers who cam e into their stores. Tesco website would operate globally as well as locally for relatively little extra cost. Tesco can get a wide range of customers because they can buy online at any time. People dont need to worry to go for shopping. Only by one click people can shop online. Also disabled people would prefer to shop online.Primark website only offers the information about the products and where to find retail outlets. In my point of view an online presence has more advantages than a purely offline presence. An online presence can get more customers selling online than an offline presence. The customers are very important for a business because without them a business can close. In conclusion, I mentioned the benefits of an online presence and the advantages of an online presence rather than a purely offline presence. BTEC First in Business Unit 8 Business Online.

Monday, February 25, 2019

Personal Development Paper Essay

I pitch a lot of scope for improvement. I bring forth a lot of potential both profession bothy and in the own(prenominal) space I destiny to tap it. My asthetic sense, candor and imagination dish me stand out in a crowd and I come up hold of to fine tune these skills. Given my high sensitivity to stress, I break away to embark on very irritable and frustrated during high constrict scenarios. I am exteremly disorganized and this has really harmed me all my life. I really deal to utilization on my organization skills.Goals To be more organized, and disciplined. I need to have a pie-eyeder work eithc, and develop strong analytical and quant skills.I would also like to invest alot of time in reading, and wasting slight time doing meaningless stuff. course session and getting exposed to the opportunities everywhere gets me excited, and in one case I am excited I am driven.Perception of others In all honesty, others view me as exteremly modest but that is because I am ski llful at hiding my weaknesses. They respect my candor and people skills, and appreciate my stimulant drug once in a while.Standards organization expects you to meet Disciplined, focused, very strong finance background, strong work ethic, working in high pressure scenarios, and having a strong sense of responsibility. learningAL PLANNING WORKSHEET Professor Randall S. Peterson DEVELOPMENT ISSUE (from GAPS analysis) The issue is that I am easily intimidated, and not focused. I feed to get distracted with my surroundings and tend to loose enliven in my own ambition and agenda. I tend to get tire easily, and leave things in the middle very impatient.EXPECTED OUTCOMES What forget be divers(prenominal)? What could someone else observe that will change? For starters I will be more diligent, focused and orderly. This can be seen through my group participation, my in class assignments, my club involvement and my career hunt activities.Juggling so many aspects at once will require all of the above. My quant and monetary skills can really develop if I invest time, and effort in reading and seeing the material. This can also be a palpable change.What will I gain by achieving the goal? What is in it for you? Happiness. Job. private satisfaction. Personal growth and victimization.WHO ELSE NEEDS TO BE COMMITED TO THIS What will you need to do as soon as you get back to the office to get started? Who do I need to get committed to helping me? And what is in it for them? Me, myself and I.LEARNING STRATEGIES FOR DEVELOPMENT(use at least three of the six to make your development goal SMART) 1) Seek New Challenges/Projects Challenge PE CASE CHALLANGE specific fulfil/Time/Deadline working with people in a field I have very little experience in. Taken a challenge. drive home to work hard. This will improve my quant and tech skills.2) Take Courses and shops Course/ fieldshop Specific Action/Time/Deadline 3) Develop Ongoing Feedback Name(s)/Strategy for Identifying dea l Study Group Specific Action/Time/Deadline Montly feedback on supercharge personally and professionally. Team contract also helps keep us in check. 4) Identify Role Models and Coaches Name(s)/Strategy for Identifying People Raluca Class mate Specific Action/Time/Deadline She helps me stay focused and organized general. We plan the everyday in advance, and luckily always manage to achieve the target.5) Development Reading Books/Papers Specific Action/Time/Deadline 6) Other Learning tactical manoeuvre Strategy Specific Action/Time/Deadline OBSTACLES What will I fall through up? I will take a leak up making excuses. I will talk less listen more. I will give up wasting time, and reading more. I will give up being disorganized. What are the major obstacles and how will I manage them? restraint is just me and my mind I need to be focused, and do tight-laced time management. Not get distracted with the noise around me. Work at my pace, and be patient.How to work with me I am pre tty flexible, and escaped going. Only thing is I lack commitment, and have poor work ethics. I tend to get distracted easily and hence get frustrated when the pressure builds up. Please be a little strcit with me when it comes to academics. I need to get more responsibility so I am actually forced to put in effort, instead of depending on others.This will help me build my quant and analytical skills, and that will increase my confidence 10 folds. Since I tend to get distracted easliy, please always deal me back on track. I am very dependable, approachable, and I have a go at it interacting with people and learning through people. Hence, if I dont understand something, and if someone explains it to me politely I will always listen. I tend to disagree alot, and sometimes unnecessairly. I am also very receptive to people criticizing me. I love negative feedback so I have room to develop. Please motivate me, and cultivate in me discipline.

Richard Rodriguez- Aria: A Memoir of a Bilingual Childhood Essay

Aria. an extract from the memoir Hunger of a Bilingual Childhood. histories for the writer. Richard Rodriguezs. tikehood get wind with larning position as a 2nd linguistic communion. Throughout his try out he represents the power of the person to get the better of the linguistic conversation barrier and how he overcame this peculiar job as a kid. Bing lacerate betwixt conforming to the public linguistic communication or remain true to his private linguistic communication. he discusses subjects of familiarity and linguistic communication. Throughout his extract. he presents atomic number 18aments against the thought of bilingual management and its ostracise effects on ESL pupils. like himself.Born in a Mexican immigrant house pretend and travel to a metropolis in California. Sacramento. Rodriguez had already known from the start that hes different from the remainder of the kids in the country. He was Hispanic. He mat the remnant expressively at domesticate and it wa s non merely because of his physical ocular aspect. The difference of is what isolated him the most. They differed socially. He felt a gulf between Spanish. the linguistic communication he use at place which offered comfort. versus English. the linguistic communication used in the public universe which to him was foreign. Rodriguez felt the insularism from his English-speaking schooldaysmates. as he struggled to get the hang this public linguistic communication and hopefully derive credence. Since its initiation yearss. U. S. had ever been a runing fastball of diverse ethnicities. Welcoming fledglings enchantment take a firm rest they learn and embrace its civic civilization.It was suggested that those who come here in the States should go Americans. Upon come ining grade school. it was a monolithic civilization haze for Rodriguez. He was put in an ESL category expected to larn English. to speech English. and communicate in English. exclusively of class in a English as a Se condary language puting. It was a ambitious passage. nevertheless. with pattern. Rodriguez began to slow follow the English linguistic communication giving him and his household boldness and deriving a sense of individuality among his equals. However. every victory came at a monetary value. Rodriguez had ever considered Spanish an intimate linguistic communication he used amongst his household. The more English he spoke delegate the less Spanish. Not long after. he felt that connexion idle and to him he associated that as a departure from his childhood.In Greek. way room emotions and for Aristotle. poignancy is an entreaty to those provinces of head that have an emotional constituent. Since it is a memoir. his emotions were magnificent in every individual page. He begins by showing himself as a immature Hispanic male child. go toing an American school for the the archetypical with really small cognition of English ( Rodriguez 163 ) . The readers inherent aptitude is to susta in understanding for the immature male child drowned in strangeness in his upstart environment. a new pigeonholing of people. a new manner of life. and a new linguistic communication. He quoted. I heard her sound it out Rich-heard Road-ree-guess ( Rodriguez 162 ) . Readers can sympathise with relatable feelings of universe immature and vulnerable. when first being faced with the existent universe.Besides. he remembered being outnumbered in his school by people of different cultural back effort. Again. readers indwelling inherent aptitude is to sympathise with anyone who might experience like the underdog or person who feels excluded and different. And in conclusion. an other large illustration was when Rodriguez notices his mothers face vanishing from the school on his first twenty-four hours. he said. Quickly. I turned to see my mothers face dissolve in a watery fuzz behind the pebbled-glass door ( Rodriguez 163 ) . Again. the readers as worlds argon of course inclined to sym pathise with a kid confronting a new and laventially baleful experience without the aid and counsel of its womanly parent. therefore it is a terrific experience. It is apparent that Rodriguez felt many negative emotions being a minority in a foreign topographic point. he felt fright. and under appreciated for who he was.For Aristotle. the ethos of a verbaliser is persuasive when the address demonstrates practical wisdom. moral virtuousness. and goodwill towards the audience. On his first twenty-four hours of school. Rodriguez commented that although he felt nervous on his first twenty-four hours of school. he knows that the other kids besides felt nervous as good. he observed his schoolmates being uneasyfinding themselves apart from their households ( Rodriguez 162 ) . He whence showed his sense of equity and his deficiency of self-pity. which reflects on his low character. Another illustration. is when Rodriguez guardedly explains the ends of bilingual instruction as those en ds are understood by its advocate. He states. Bilingual schooling is a plan popularized in the 1970ss. that decade when middle-class ethnics began to defy the procedure of assimilation the American thaw pot ( Rodriguez 172 ) . Once more. he present himself as carnival minded and nonsubjective. Besides. while he was showing his resistance to bilingual linguistic communication his used of the word force in I hear them and am hale to state no ( Rodriguez 180 ) implies that his point is non fiddling. It is something he feels he aim to voice to do other ESL pupils feel more comfy. His phrasing suggests that he feels theta he has no other ethical pick but to state war he genuinely and rightfully believes. This proves that he is true and unfeignedly to what he believes and is honorable and caring about the well being of other kids who feels different .Sons are explained as the text of speech by Aristotle. And in conclusion. Talking as an intelligent and educated grownup. Rodriguez int roduces the subject of bilingual instruction. He shows that he knows when his thought was foremost proposed. by whom it was proposed. by whom it was foremost proposed to. and the causal agent that led people to suggest it ( Rodriguez 172 ) . His deduction proves him to be good assured and trusty observer. Next. Rodriguez reports more of his ain household background. connoting that his resistance to bilingual instruction will be rooted in really practical grounds with which he is rather familiar. he states Bilingualists insists that a pupil should be reminded of his difference from others in mass high society. of his heritage ( Rodriguez 173 ) . His resistance will non be blind but will alternatively be the consequence of grounds he personally knows all excessively good.The point Rodriguez is doing in his essay with the usage of rhetorical entreaties is that turning up as an ESL scholar was hard. but it enabled him to set up a public individuality in his communicative communit y. He felt he had the right and duty to larn English. Rodriguez does non hold with Hispanic American activists who support a bilingual instruction for ESL scholars. He feels that teaching the kids in Spanish instead than English might hold in their ain entryway in the public universe of English-speaking society and ache them in a long tally.He strongly feels that school should be taught in standard English. the same manner how other pupils are taught. Alternatively of seeking to absorb the difference in societal civilization. schools and pedagogues should kindle pupils to encompass their roots. while seeking to larn the English linguistic communication. ESL Students should non experience the demand to maintain their primary linguistic communication sole when in the adult-life holding a 2nd linguistic communication is a capital advantage. The positive facets of the place of ESL scholars should decidedly be emphasized in a school scene.

Booking System Essay

1.Product DescriptionGamici is genius of Singapores to the highest degree honored and sty inclining Italian eating place which ca utilize au thustic Italian cuisine. With its simple, elegant besides friendly and vibrant environment, Gamici has become a common social congregation place for many friends and families. Therefore, this has helped to boost the growth of its furrow. Currently, Gamici is using a exclusively manual ground governing body to carry step forward some of their solar day to day operations. Due to the business growth, this system has become inadequate to assure its business requirements.Some problems it encountered using a manual system when its business is keep upting busier each day More manpower is needed to serve the customers which lead to space constraint in the restaurant. Servers complained that they throw off too often to do deep down the fastest fourth dimension possible else customers whollyow get impatient with their process. Thi s may lead to more human wrongful conduct such as c atomic number 18lessness. Inefficiency ca routined re warping customers to decr eternal sleep as the wait time for lay, provender to be served, servers response and billing are getting too long. nutriment qualitydegrades as sustenance processing time is goldbrickened to dumbfoundtle with customers impatience. Customers brook single reserve seats and rewrite food with phone c wholes and this means that remuneration erectnot be grass beforehand. Some of the food hosteled by customers may have supererogatory ingredients that need distri excepte purchasing. Last minute earth-closetcellation by customers or customers who do not turn up, result in wastage of food and mental faculty effort is put to a waste. Thus, the restaurant lead eventu aloney patch up loses. High expenses incurred.With the aim for resolve the above problems, Gamici has decided to engage UPz to sustain a portal to 1) cut the workload of the staff.2) Have online retribution via book of facts/debit bill sticker.3) Receive order in real timeTherefore, UPz parcel development team lay off introduce an Online modesty and Food Ordering System (ORFO) whereby customers wad shop the food menu online, which order can be placed and allowance can be made by dint of the system and reserve seats based on restaurant floor image to pick the hire seat location in the restaurant that the customers p aro wasting disease to dine at.1.1Product mickleThe new system (ORFO) aims to increase efficiency to smo other work run of the restaurant so as to provide top-notch dining experience and service to the customers. It in addition aims to reduce overheads ca accustomd by the manual system and solve the received problems mentioned in Section 1 Product Description.1.2Business RequirementsThe first version of the ORFO essentialiness be avail fitting within three months. ORFO moldiness(prenominal)(prenominal)iness demonst rate greet saving of at least(prenominal) 20% on labor within a year after the introduction. The reduction of manpower would mean that the restaurant need not have to activate as many staff as before during peak hours or days of the week. Labor productivity essential(prenominal) be improved by 15% at least. receipts must result in 20% increase after a year. vernal and existing customers patrolling the restaurant must result in 15% increase at least.1.3Stakeholders and UsersManagement The Board of Directors as the controlling engage in ORFO. Weekly status update meeting leave behind be held to communicate the progress of the go for to the management. Purchaser Upz who invest money to develop the system.User Customers who use ORFO to interact with Gamici.Developers The eight-member development team which includes one project manager, two programmers, two software engineers, two entropybase analysts and one de bulls eyeer. Staff eatery Manager and Restaurant Supervisor w ho maintain and update the portal such as adding new full ranges to the menu, making changes to the damages, introducing promotions. Administration Clerk and Waiters are only able to retrieve discipline.1.4Project ScopeThe scope of this project is to develop an Online taciturnity and Food Ordering System which will be integrated on Gamici weather vanesite. This system allows qualification making and food ordering services that will provide a convenient dining experience to the customers. Customers can also raise special requests to cater to their needs. In addition, the ORFO system allows customers to choose their confide seats online based on the restaurant floor plan and order food. Then, pay can also be done online finished ORFO system. Database will be created to keep track of customers knowledge and requests.1.5 AssumptionsOrder ID will be issued to customers after each transaction with Gamici. The payment modes will be through recognize/debit cards or internet bank ing. An invoice will automatically be beard after each transaction.6 ConstraintsThe system should financing various payment modes.Functional Requirements1. General1. The drug drug drug exploiter shall only be able to perform the following operations i. For customera. propose a reticenceb. Browse menuc. picky requestd. Make paymente. Modify/cancel conflictii. For restaurant personnela. View database2. The ORFO must have a Back dismission to go back to prior summon.2. Make a military reserve1. When the user initiates Make a engagement, he/she must be taken to the Make a Reservation page. 2. The user must be able to inject the following reading a. Time and dateb. issue forth of mass3. at once the user submits the randomness, he/she will be taken a page that order of battles the floor plan of the restaurant. 4. The page must show all the available evade(s) that fit the requirements in 2.2.2 in yellow. Unqualified bow(s) will be in red. 5. The user must be able t o choose the postpone(s) in yellow only and using the mouse by clicking on the table. The selected table will be in green. 6. The user must be able to deselect the table by clicking the selected table again and the table will be in yellow again. 7. erst the requested table(s) is selected, the user must be able to click the affirm clitoris to go away. 8. The user must be able to enter the following randomness a. Name(between 1 to 32 characters)b. Contact number9. erst the education is submitted, the selected table(s) and the in orderion must be updated in the database. 10. If the update fails, the ORFO must show an error subject matter to the user notifying him/her of the failure.3. Browse Menu1. The ORFO must ostentation the menu that is updated to the current day and must be pellucid to the menu used in the restaurant. 2. The menu page must demo the menu in tabs with the following categories i. Main shapeii. Appetizersiii. Beveragesiv. Dessert3. each tab page must pre sentation a list of 10 circumstances at a time. 4. User must be able to fly through the breaker points using various navigational link up provided at the diffuse of the page a. Clicking next will list the next 10 products in the menu. (If more available) b. Clicking foregoing will list the previous 10 products in the menu. (If previous exists) c. Click on individual page numbers will uncover the selected page. 5. The ORFO must allow the user to view the following some a single degree from the menu by clicking on the item a. feature addressb. spot imagec. Item descriptiond. Item price6. The user must be able to select the item by double clicking on the item and the item will be added to trail, link to 2.3.7. 7. The ORFO must pageant a cart that contains the items selected by the user at the bottom of the page. 8. The cart must contain the following informationa. Item nameb. Item pricec. fall price (with GST)d. Total price (with GST)9. The user must be able to delete t he item from the cart by selecting the item and click on the Remove spillage at the side. 10. If there is at least one item in the cart, the user must be able to click the act button to proceed. 11. one time the Proceed button is clicked, the selected items information must be updated in the database. 12. If the update fails, the ORFO must show an error meat to the user notifying him/her of the failure.4. Special Request1. The ORFO must display a list of default special request with tabs with the following categories a. Birthdayb. run acrossc. User maked2. For tabs a and b, the page must display a list of 10 items at a time. 3. User must be able to navigate through the items using various navigational links provided at the bottom of the page a. Clicking next will list the next 10 products in the menu. (If more available) b. Clicking previous will list the previous 10 products in the menu. (If previous exists) c. Click on individual page numbers will display the selected page. 4. The ORFO must allow the user to view the following about a single item from the menu by clicking on the item e. Item namef. Item imageg. Item descriptionh. Item price5. The user must be able to select the item by double clicking on the item and the item will be added to cart under refer to 2.3.7. 6. To delete the selected item refer to For tab c, the user must be able to enter in a short description of the special request and must provide the following information i.Item nameii. Place to buy8. If there is at least one item in the cart, the user must be able to click the Proceed button to proceed. 9. Once the Proceed button is clicked, the selected items information must be updated in the database. 10. If the update fails, the ORFO must show an error message to the user notifying him/her of the failure. 11. The ORFO must inform the user via the contact provided in 2.2.8 within 24 hours about the user defined special requests.5. Make Payment1. The ORFO must allow the user to look through all the items in the cart with information provided in The user must be able to confirm the order(s) by clicking the Confirm button.3. The ORFO must display the modes of payment as showni. By cash at the restaurantii. By reliance card via online4. If the user selects a, proceed to 2.5.5. If the user selects b, proceed to The ORFO must arrive a transaction ID, the user must produce this ID at the restaurant for verification during the day of backlog.6. The user must click the Proceed button to verify that he/ she has noted the transaction ID.7. The ORFO must proceed to The user must be brought to a secured page to make the payment viacredit card.9. The user must be able to enter his/her credit card number.10. After valid credit card number is entered, the user must be able to proceed by clicking the Proceed button.11. Once Proceed button is clicked, the ORFO must verify the credit number.12. If verification fails, the ORFO must show an e rror message to the user to notify him/her of the failure.13. If verification is successful, the ORFO must generate an invoice and a link must be provided to the invoice for printing.14. The ORFO must display the following information.a. Transaction IDb. Invoice ID (if any)c. Time and Dated. Number of quite a littlee. Table(s) uncommunicativef. Food stagedg. Special request(s) (if any)15. The reservation is completed, the user must be able to exit the page or proceed with another transaction by clicking the Finish button.6. Modify/ Cancel Reservation1. The ORFO must allow the user to modify or cancel reservation at Modify/Cancel Reservation Page. 2. The user must enter the following information for verification a. Transaction IDb. Credit card (for payment via credit card only)3. If the verification fails, the ORFO must show an error message to the user notifying him or her of the failure. 4. If the verification is successful, the ORFO must check the time of this try-on and the t ime of reservation. 5. If the duration is more than 24 hours, the ORFO must show a message to the user notifying him/her that it is too late for the revision and 2.6.20. 6. If the duration is shorter than 24 hours, the user must be able to proceed to the page to make the adjustment. 7. The ORFO must display the followinga. Modify reservationb. Cancel reservation8. If the user selects a, proceed to 2.6.9. If the user select selects b, proceed to 2.6.17. 9. The ORFO must allow the user to modify the reservation as shown below i. Change reticent table, refer to 2.2ii. Modify ordered food, refer to 2.3iii. Modify special requests, refer to 2.410. If the net payment after the adjustment is less than the previous payment, no refund must be given. 11. If the net payment after the adjustment is more than the previous payment, additional payment must be made, refer to 2.5. 12. The ORFO must update the database with the adjustments. 13. If the adjustment fails, the ORFO must show an error m essage to the user notifying him or her of the failure. 14. If the update is successful, the ORFO must display the following information.a. New Transaction IDb. Invoice ID (if any)c. Time and Dated. Number of peoplee. Table(s) dumbf. Food orderedg. Special request(s) (if any)15. The ORFO must display the following information of the reservationa. Transaction IDb. Invoice ID (if any)c. Time and Dated. Number of peoplee. Table(s) reservedf. Food orderedg. Special request(s) (if any)16. The user must be able to cancel the reservation by clicking Cancel Reservation.17. Once the user selects Cancel Reservation, the ORFO must update the database with the adjustments. 18. If the adjustment fails, the ORFO must show an error message to the user notifying him or her of the failure. 19. If the update is successful, the ORFO must inform the user how to get the refund.20. The adjustment is completed, the user must be able to exit the page or proceed with another reservation by clicking the Fin ish button.7. View Database1. The user must choose the time and date in a drop down menu. 2. The ORFO must display the database in tabs with the following categories a. Tables reservedb. Food orderedc. Special Orders3. If the user selects a, proceed to 2.7.4. If the user selects b, proceed to 2.7.6. If the user selects c, proceed to 2.7.9. 4. The ORFO must display the floor plan showing the status of the table a. Green table means reservedb. Red table means not reserved5. The ORFO must allow the user to view the following about a reserved table from the floor plan by clicking on the table a. Customer nameb. Customer contact numberc. Number of peopled. Link to the ordered foode. Link to the special requestf. order of payment6. The ORFO must display the ordered food in tabs based on the reserved tables. 7. When the user selects one of the tabs, the ORFO must display the ordered food in a table, with the following format a. Main courseb. Appetizersc. Beveragesd. Dessert8. The ORFO mus t display the quantity of the ordered food beside the item in the table. 9. The ORFO must display the special requests in tabs based on the reserved tables. 10. When the user selects one ofthe tabs, the ORFO must display the special requests in a table, with the following format a. Birthdayb. Datec. User define11. The ORFO must display the quantity of the special requests beside the item in the table. 12. Once viewing of the database is done, the user must be exit the database by clicking on the Exit button.3.Data RequirementsData requirements describe the format, structure, type, and allowable values of data entering, leaving, or descentd by the product.1. The system will only accept data which are correct and not ambiguious. E.g Mobile number should only be 8 digits long and credit card numbers should be 16 digits long. 2. The involvement can only be submitted and processed by the system when all required fields of data have been filled up. 3. The system should display all times in the 24-hour clock format. 4. The system must store customer names in fields recording first and last(a) name. 5. When a customer has selected a table of choice for booking but has not yet confirmed his booking, the system will lock out that particular table to other customers.4.Non-functional requirementsThere are requirements that are not functional in nature. Specifically, these are the constraints the system must work within.1. Compatiblity1. The website should be compatitible with both Internet Explorer and Mozilla Firefox, the 2 most widely used browser currently.2. User user interface1. The user interface should be as familiar as possible to users who have used other web applications and Windows desktop applications. E.g., we will follow the UI guidelines for naming menus, buttons, and dialog boxes whenever possible.3. Security1. approaching will be controlled with usernames and passwords2. Only administrator users will have nark to administrative functions, average us ers will not.3. Database should be reasonably secured to prevent outflow or loss of confidential information such as credit card details from customers..4. Performance1. The system should be up and cartroad 24/7.2. It should support at least 100 users using the online booking concurrently without any lag.5. Backup and Recovery1. There should be a backup server and database to prevent service interuption or loss of data when the main server and database are down.2. Downtime should not last more then 30sec when switching from main server to the backup server in subject of a breakdown.6. Reliability1. The whole online booking system should achieve a 99% sucessrate. i.e downtime should not be more then 1% of its get operating time.2. System review will take place monthly. whatsoever lack in performance or reliability will be addressed and improved on after each review.7. System Maintainence1. Maintainence of the system will be conducted weekly. Maintainence will be conducted during off-peak hours e.g between 12am 6amz5.Interface RequirementsOverviewThe user interface of this restaurant booking system is a web site which can be viewed using popular web browsers. This high handiness made it easier and more convenient for users to use the system. Users dont need to set up any additional software for the purpose of running the system. As long as an Internet co nnection is available, the system can be easily accessed using their mobile devices. Multi- programs operation is also an additional prefer of this design.One more advantage of this design is the power of the Hyper Text Markup wrangle ( hypertext mark-up language). HTML provides nicer features with simple modification and configuration compared to the GUI of other languages. HTML language supports the use of other languages and technique to make dynamic objects, which can improve the vividness of the application.5.1User InterfacesThese are the fundamental features of the GUI that should be include in t he websitesA login box comprises of an account and a password textfield. Users can signin using their NRIC to check their bookings. We can provide the sign up function for long-term users so that they dont have to refill the information everytime booking is made.A dynamic menu including the links to the homepage, the menu page, the booking page and the information page. the menupage will have the list of food with its respective image.It can be divided into many pages to ease up the navigation. The booking page will have a obtain cart function for the booking of food and a clickable map for the reservation of seats. After booking is submitted, the webpage will automatically redirect to the payment page. The information page will provide additional information about the restaurant.A slideshow or a flash of the images of the restaurant.Images of the top ordered dishes and their respective information (e.g price, ..).A panel for advertisements coming from our own restaurant or from ot her parties.5.2Hardware InterfacesDescribe how the software application interfaces with hardware that exists outside the scope of the system.5.3Software InterfacesThe use of web design tools such as Adobe Dreamweaver is employed to make a more professional and nicer design of the system. The code editor and the design editor is integrated in one tool, which allows easy modification as well as addition of elements onto the web pages. Interactive and dynamic objects can be created more easily within a few clicks. The platform to implement the webpage is php and mysql with the support of Apache. some other platforms to be considered are jsp, serverlet using netbean, and Cusing Visual Studio. However, PHP is chosen due to its popularity, ease in tag and the availability of free scripts online.To edit the images and make the flash, it is recommended to utilize Adobe Photoshop, barefaced SlideShow maker and Adobe(Macromedia) Flash Player. This requires some Actionscript code to make the dynamic contents. Its also used to create icons and graphics to enhance the interface.5.4. Difficulties Encountered and Solutions AppliedSince most of the languages used is new to the development team. It takes time to get familiar with these languages. Another problem confronted by the team is the inconsistency in designs and layout since diametric components and different pages are developed seperately by different people. These components are later unified together to form the complete system.Confronting these problems, our team has come up with fascinate solutions and utilize it successfully. For instance, we have searched online and found plenty of free pieces of code and software that is applicable to our system. This simplifies the process of coding and ontogenesis some interactive components. To name it, we use Flash SlideShow maker to generate the slideshow in the flash format simply by adding pictures and choose the skin of the layout. A lot of PHP codes, Jav ascript to do some complicated tasks or to make dynamic menus features can be found easily on the websites and tutorials. They give us an idea of how the line of products is done and save us a lot of hard work. virtually the inconsistency matter, the Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) is applied to enhance the flexibility and accessibility of the elements by defining the common element property seperately and concretely. These properties are specify in the style sheet, which determines the appearance of all the pages that are linked to it. The point is that these properties only need to be entered once and then they are applied automatically to all the elements, which save a lot of coding. Another rum advantage displays itself when it comes to managing big and sophisticated websites. CSS make itpossible for the whole systems and organizations to carry on and reuse a small number of style sheets. Beside ensurement of consistency across the site, CSS also favors the updating and modifyi ng of the web layouts to conform to the changes in system requirement. rather of editting individual components, we can edit all together in one go by modifying the style sheet.6.Use Case ModelProvide the top-level use case diagram, followed by the use case description for each use case.6.1Use Case Diagram6.2Use Case Description7.GlossaryDefine all price and acronyms required to interpret the SRS properly. This is the (problem) domain dictionary.8.ReferencesProvide a list of all documents and other sources of information referenced in the SRS and utilized in developing the SRS. Include for each the document number, title, date and author. enrolment No. Document Title Date Author 9.Revision HistoryIdentify changes to the SRS.Version Date Name Description

Sunday, February 24, 2019

Computer Software Essay

Q1.What atomic number 18 the main types of softw be? What ar the advantages of rude- root word packet dodging? Describe the decision devising form of acquiring exercise bundle.Q2.In the end, data placement is recognized single as a foundation for military personnel judgment, shrewdness and inventiveness. Discuss. What be distinct types of controls and analyses required for an cultivation system?Q3.What is reckonerized maintenance oversight? Explain the abstract moulding through which the maintenance pop off butt joint achieve its objectives on a sustained cornerstone.Q4. transcend is a various(a) spreadsheet package. It pot do wonder for accountants. Explain.Q5. What do you understand by Artificial Intelligence? What ar the featureors that highlighted the pick out of developing AI? What are the goals of AI.Q1.What are the main types of software product? What are the advantages of outspoken- quotation software? Describe the decision making process o f acquiring activity software.Main Types of computer softwareProgramming Software This is atomic number 53 of the most ballparkly known and popularly engrossd types of computer software. These software come in the form of tools that assist a programmer in writing computer programs. computing device programs are sets of logical instructions that befuddle a computer system perform certain tasks. The tools that help programmers in instructing a computer system imply text editors, compilers and interpreters. Compilers translate source code written in a programming speech communication into the language which a computer understands (mostly the binary form).System Software It helps in hurry computer hardware and the computer system. System software refers to the operating systems whatsis drivers, servers, windowing systems and utilities. System software helps an finishing programmer in abstracting away from hardware, holding and different internal complexities of a computer. An operating system provides users with a plan to execute high-level programs. Firmware and BIOS provide the means to operate hardware. finishing Software It en fitteds the end users to accomplish certain specialized tasks. Business software, infobases and educational software are nearly forms of screening software. Different word processors, which are dedicated to specialized tasks to be performed by the user, are other examples of application software.Malware Malware refers to many(prenominal) malicious software and is a broader category of software that are a threat to computer security. Adware, spyware, computer viruses, worms, trojan horses and scareware are malware. Computer viruses are malicious programs which replicate themselves and spread from one computer to another(prenominal) over the net tempt or the Internet..Adware Adware is software with the means of which advertisements are compete and downloaded to a computer. Programmers foundation adware as their tool to generate revenue. They do derive user information like the websites he visits frequently and the pages he likes. Advertisements that step to the fore as pop-ups on your screen are the result of adware programs tracking you. precisely adware is not harmful to computer security or user privacy. The data it collects is only for the purpose of inviting user clicks on advertisements.Inventory Management Software This type of software helps an face in tracking its goods and materials on the basis of quality as well as quantity. Warehouse inventory focus functions encompass the internal warehouse movements and storage. Inventory software helps a attach to in organizing inventory and optimizing the flow of goods in the organization, thus leading to change customer suffice.Utility Software Also known as service routine, utility software helps in the postulatement of computer hardware and application software. It performs a sm wholly range of tasks. Disk defragmenters, systems ut ilities and virus s bathners are several(prenominal) of the typical examples of utility software.Data Backup and Recovery Software An nonesuch data backup and recovery software provides functionalities beyond simple write of data files. This software a lot supports user needs of specifying what is to be endorse up and when. Backup and recovery software preserve the original organization of files and allow an easy retrieval of the backed up data.Advantages of open source softwareUsually, the first perceived advantage of open source models is the fact that open source software is win available gratis or at a low comprise. But this characteristic is not liquid ecstasy to open source software, and several proprietary software products are made available in similar ways (a prominent case could be Microsofts Internet Explorer). What really distinguishes open source software from software available without fee is the gang of effects due to the characteristics discussed in instalm ent 3.1. All of them conflated evoke a synergistic impact which is the start out of the real advantages of the open source model. Let us provide some more detail on how do these characteristics turn into advantagesThe right to distribute modifications and improvements to the code, and to reuse other open source code, permits all the advantages due to the modifiability of the software to be appropriated by large communities. This is usually the point that differentiates open source software licences from nearly free ones. In substance, the fact that redistribution rights tail endnot be revoked, and that they are universal, is what attracts a substantial crowd of developers to work around open source software projects.The right to use the software in any way. This, combined with redistribution rights, ensures (if the software is useful enough), a large population of users, which helps in turn to build up a market for support and customization of the software, which can only attr act more and more developers to work in the project. This in turn helps to improve the quality of the product, and to improve its functionality. Which, once more, will crap more and more users to give the product a try, and probably to use it regularly.The decision making process of acquiring Application SoftwareApplications are made available in line with business requirements. This process covers the traffic pattern of the applications, the proper inclusion of application controls and security requirements, and the development and configuration in line with standards. This allows organisations to properly support business operations with the correct automate applications.Control over the IT process of Acquire and maintain application software that satisfies the business requirement for IT of aligning available applications with business requirements, and doing so in a timely manner and at a reasonable cost by focusing on ensuring that there is a timely and cost-effective develo pment process is achieved by Translating business requirements into design specifications Adhering to development standards for all modifications Separating development, testing and operational activities and is measured by Number of production problems per application causing visible downtime Percent of users satisfied with the functionality delivered Q2.In the end, information system is recognized only as a foundation for clement judgment, insight and inventiveness. Discuss. What are different types of controls and audits required for an information system? breeding system, an integrated set of components for collecting, storing, processing, and communicating information.Business firms, other organizations, and individuals in contemporaneous society rely on information systems to manage their operations, compete in the marketplace, supply services, and augment personal lives. For instance, modern corporations rely on computerized information systems to process financial accou nts and manage human resources municipal governments rely on information systems to provide basic services to its citizens and individuals use information systems to study, shop, bank, and invest. tuition systems controlsTo ensure secure and efficient operation of information systems, an organization institutes a set of procedures and technological measures called controls. Information systems are safeguarded through a combination of general and application controls.General controls apply to information system activities passim an organization. The most important general controls are the measures that control access to computer systems and the information stored there or transmitted over telecommunications networks. General controls include administrative measures that detain employee access to only those processes directly relevant to their duties. As a result, these controls limit the damage that any individual employee or employee ape can do. Fault-tolerant computer systems in stalled in critical environments, such as in hospital information systems or securities marketplaces, are designed to control and discriminate problems so that the system can continue to function.Application controls are specific to a given application and include such measures as authorize input data, regularly archiving copies of various databases, and ensuring that information is disseminated only to authorized users.The potentiality of an information systems controls is evaluated through an information systems audit. It is a fictitious character of a more general financial audit that verifies an organizations accounting records and financial statements. Information systems are designed so that all(prenominal) financial work can be traced. In other words, an audit trail moldiness exist that can establish where each transaction originated and how it was processed. Aside from financial audits, operational audits are employ to evaluate the strong point and efficiency of info rmation systems operations.Q3.What is computerized maintenance management? Explain the conceptual model through which the maintenance function can achieve its objectives on a sustained basis.Computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) is also known as enterprise asset management and computerized maintenance management information system (CMMIS). A CMMS software package maintains a computer database of information more or less an organizations maintenance operations, i.e. CMMIS computerized maintenance management information system. This information is intended to help maintenance workers do their jobs more effectively (for example, ascertain which machines require maintenance and which storerooms contain the spare parts they need) and to help management make informed decisions (for example, calculating the cost of machine breakdown fixation versus preventive maintenance for each machine, possibly leading to better apportionment of resources). CMMS data may also be used to verify regulative compliance.CMMS packages may be used by any organization that must perform maintenance on equipment, assets and plaza. Some CMMS products focus on peculiar(prenominal) industry sectors (e.g. the maintenance of vehicle fleets or health care facilities). other products aim to be more general.CMMS packages can produce status reports and documents braggy details or summaries of maintenance activities. The more sophisticated the package, the more depth psychology facilities are available.Many CMMS packages can be either web-based, meaning they are hosted by the company selling the product on an outside server, or LAN based, meaning that the company buying the software hosts the product on their own server.The conceptual model through which the maintenance function can achieve its objectives on a sustained basis are used to manage simple or complex facilities, from a single grammatical construction to a complete campus. They can also be used to manage the mainten ance program for a grouping of equipment such as a fleet of vehicles. The systems are very versatile since most are in modular form for the various maintenance functions and can be customized to tantrum the particular application.Whatever system or set of modules are learned for use, painstaking consideration needs to be given to Functional Requirements and a vowelise deployment plan. The CMMS must meet the needs, constraints, and opportunities of the business and be implemented in a way that users will welcome the technology and present a peck for the benefits it brings. Proper configuration, testing, and training cannot be over emphasized when bringing a peeled CMMS or upgrading an exist system to an organization.Q4.Excel is a versatile spreadsheet package. It can do wonder for accountants. Explain.Excel spreadsheets are the most common and indispensable tool used by accountants, enabling them to analyse, report and share financial information. Much of this can be accompli shed using only a fraction of the wealth of functions and options within the Excel program. Basic arithmetic, the SUM() function and some cell border formatting will let you produce useful models and perform some quite complex calculations. By expanding your experience with just a few other functions, Excel can expire a much more versatile tool. Very once in a while Excel does not contain a function that you may count, and it is necessary to combine other functions to perform tasks such as calculating weighted averages. Accountants exact a professional responsibility to present accurate data.The IF() and TEXT() functions are intrinsic for incorporating error checking messages to demonstrate that the spreadsheet models catch been reconciled and are performing properly. A spreadsheet presentation gives reports a degree of unearned credibility. This is frequently ill-deserved and question supplys that a high proportion of large models contain critical errors. Your spreadsheets must be well designed and thoroughly checked If you wish to be discriminating with your data and only perform calculations on items that meet certain criteria, some(prenominal) Database and Array functions are useful, but SUMPRODUCT() is the most versatile and wonderful alternative. It is able to extract all sorts of value from a table of data and can be used as an alternative to a great numerous functions.Graphs are a great way to present information, but aliment them simple. Dont get carried away with 3D formats which can make it difficult to read important axis values. If you update a graph on a regular basis, you are very likely to occasionally forget to manually alter any titles which contain period information. It is trounce to link chart titles to cell contents which can be automatically updated.A popular, modern Financial Management technique is that of balanced scorecards which often incorporate traffic light indicators. Conditional formatting for cell ranges is not only useful for highlighting exceptional or incorrect values but can be used to automatically colour cells to show good or bad performance.In order to report on tables of data with separate columns or rows for each accounting period, the OFFSET() function lets you select data for any single or cumulative period.There are numerous financial functions for performing interest and investment calculations. These can greatly simplify the long formulae previously required for things such as loanword repayments but always beware. The built in functions may perform other than to your own (textbook) formulas. They may invert the sign and show negative results where you expect positive they may use a base period of p0 where you espouse it is p1.Once you have tested the financial functions using a medley of situations and confirmed the results, they make tasks such as calculating the Net apply Value much easier. Finally, it is always helpful to make your models friendly to other users. Prot ecting or determineing the values that can be rigid in cells will prevent unforeseen errors. Drop down boxes are a splendid way of getting values from users and hyperlinks can imbibe them around your models. By incorporating dates and file spots in default headers and footers, anyone can trace the source of your masterpiece.Q5. What do you understand by Artificial Intelligence? What are the factors that highlighted the need of developing AI? What are the goals of AI.Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines and the first of computer science that aims to create it. While there are umteen different definitions, AI textbooks define the field as the study and design of ingenious agents. where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success. John McCarthy, who coined the term in 1956 defines it as the science and engineering of making intelligent machines.The field was founded on the claim tha t a central property of humans, intelligencethe sapience of Homo sapienscan be so precisely described that it can be simulated by a machine. This raises philosophical issues about the nature of the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings, issues which have been addressed by myth, fiction and philosophy since antiquity. Artificial intelligence has been the force field of optimism,8 but has also suffered setbacks and, today, has become an essential part of the technology industry, providing the concentrated lifting for many of the most difficult problems in computer science.AI research is highly technical and specialized, deeply divided into subfields that often fail in the task of communicating with each other Subfields have grown up around particular institutions, the work of individual researchers, and the solution of specific problems, resulting in longstanding differences of opinion about how AI should be done and the application of widely differing tools. The central problems of AI include such traits as reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, communication, cognizance and the ability to move and manipulate objects. General intelligence (or strong AI) is still among the fields long term goals.Goals of AIThe long goals of AI include finding out what the world is like, understanding it, and changing it, or, in other words,a.empirical study and modelling of existing intelligent systems (mainly human beings)b.theoretical analysis and exploration of possible intelligent systems and possible mechanisms and representations usable by such systems andc.solving practical problems in the light of (a) and (b), namelyc.1.attempting to deal with problems of existing intelligent systems (e.g., problems of human learning or emotional difficulties) andc.2.designing useful new intelligent or semi intelligent machines.Some people restrict the term artificial intelligence to a subset of this wide-ranging discipline. For example, those who think of it as essen tially a branch of engineering restrict it to (c.2). This does not do justice to the full range of work done in the name of AI.In any case, it is folly to try to produce engineering solutions without either studying general underlying principles or investigating the existing intelligent systems on which the new machines are to be modelled or with which they will have to interact. Trying to build intelligent systems without trying to understand general principles would be like trying to build an aeroplane without understanding principles of mechanics or aerodynamics. Trying to build them without studying how people or other animals work would be like trying to build machines without ever studying the properties of any naturally occurring object.The need to study general principles of thought, and the ways in which human beings perceive, think, understand language, etc., means that AI work has to be done in close collaboration with work in psychology, linguistics, and even philosophy, the discipline that examines some of the most general presuppositions of our thought and language. The term cognitive science can also be used to cover the full range of goals qualify above, though it too is ambiguous, and some of its more narrow-minded practitioners tend to restrict it to (a) and (c.1).