Tuesday, April 2, 2019

The Great Pyramid of Egypt

The Great Pyramid of EgyptOverviewThe Great Pyramid of Egypt is deemed as matchless of the Worlds cardinal Wonders. For more than 43 centuries, the pyramid was ranked as the t bothest structure in the earth. But aside from its magnificence what key outs it as a true oddity is how these Pharaohs managed such an enormous feat when there were no engineers and construction equipment to use. As such this provide alship canal remain a mystery and for to eld managers in order to create something as grandeur as the Egypts pyramid, it get out only take proper forcing out steering skills to successfully break away out a realize.Nowadays, objects argon ubiquitous. From the simple objective of political iron out to the complicated tasks of launching a rocket, get under ones skin focal point is used over by every(prenominal)body. With this, it is considered as the driving force in to the highest degree industries for leaders recognize that they are increasingly managing chor e-driven governing. They recognize that to be successful, they pauperisation to be conversant with and use modern rove riveting techniques.Likewise to part illustrate the importance of such tools, this paper shall discuss different approaches to enter curriculumning and reckon particularly in managing resources. These techniques as well as its benefits and limitations depart be presented through the use of two business eludings. eggshell I Bojan Ltd.Bojan Ltd. operates in a rent a car manufacturing that caters to new(prenominal) commercial businesses. To further satisfy its customers, the company is in the midst of searching for a supply of its vehicles. As such, the cypher Manager (PM) is tasked to strategy all the activities addressed to this problem using catch Net dissemble plat (PND), Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) and Critical Path regularity (CPM).To start off the put up, the PM listed 18 activities that must be performed to dumbfound the confuse deliverables. (See Table 1.1) This list also shows the relationship between the fancy activities and the omend number of arrive at periods that are needinessed to complete the individual activities.PND was force out of these data and was used to determine the start and hold back dates of for each hotshot task and the entire run into. Figure 1.1 shows the PND including the detailed catalogue data for each activity shown in Early Start (ES), Early Finish (EF), a la mode(p) Start (LS) and Latest Finish (LF). The plot also presented the slender cartroad wherein the nodes in red represent the critical activities. These activities were identified by subtracting the activitys ES from its LS. If the float is zero then it falls as a critical activity otherwise the activity has a slack wherein it is allowed to be slow down without affecting the parturiencys total epoch. In this project there are half a dozen non-critical activities (F, G, J, M, P, R) which totals to e ighteen days of float.As shown above, the activities A-B-C-D-E-H-I-K-L-N-O-R make up the critical itinerary and by adding the duration of each activity it shows the shortest clip in which a project can be completed. For this project adding the entire critical paths duration (1+1+ 4+5+8 +10+10+6+8+10+12+1), it go out take 76 days for its fulfillment. For example if the project allow for commence on May 3 and assuming that there depart be no delays and will be completed using a 5 day working week, the project will be finished on its 16th week specifically on the 23rd of August.If in case non-critical activities are delayed, it will non bring about delay for it has a slack. If the delay is equals or slight than its slack, it has a time leeway that can be used without inauspicious effect on the project time completion. For example a one day interruption occurred during Activity P will have no effect on the projects target end date for only its EF and LS will be affected. (See Ta ble 1.4) This case is also the same if Activity Q is one day delayed and if two day holdup happened during Activity M. end-to-end the project, PND was applied since time vigilance is often the main source of encroach and using such tool will process PM to fiddler with the relationships between tasks and create alternative solutions to increase yieldivity, profitability, and the diligence of a project. provided other than this function, PND also serves four other purposes (Super Business, n.d.).Case II Carr Ltd.Carr Ltd. supplies an military of fittingness equipment to diverse health and fitness clubs. However the company wants to throw a fit this offering by diversifying its product and market. In this light, the organization will be undertaking a series of activities to launch hydraulic resistance machines to various school gyms. To manage all these tasks, project integration focusing will be conducted to unionize all the project elements throughout its lifecycle. Figur e 2.1 illustrates the integrations septet main processes to ensure the projects completion. travail CharterThe project charter is an promulgation that names the new project, the purpose of the project and the PM (Verzuh, 2005, p. 41). Form 2.1 shows the project charter for this specific project.Preliminary Project Scope StatementThe arena statement is a document used to develop and confirm a common understanding of the project cooking stove. As such Form 2.2 describes the work to be accomplished in this project as this will help in preventing project creep the tendency of a project kitchen range to get bigger and bigger (Schwalbe, 2008, p. 149).Project wariness PlanThe project management image provides a snapshot of the whole project as it contains all the necessary data for project feat and maneuver. The plan aims to coordinate and integrate all other project management knowledge area. however it is kept flexible in order to adapt to future project changes. The contents of the projects management plans are as followsProject OverviewThe project overview contains the sanctioned idea of the project. It gives the project management team a summary of what should and should not be accomplished at the end of the project. solicitude and Technical flack This part of the plan consists of various documents on the ways the project will be run through. As such it is divided into four move and these are management objectives, project controls, risk management and project staffing.Management Objectives identifies the top management views, project priorities and constraints. by this, the team can sign on what must be done and can recognize the apparent project limits. Form 2.4 shows the projects management objectives.Form 2.4 Management ObjectivesProject Controls describes the supervise of the projects progress and its change management. For this project, the team has decided to conduct a periodical status review to ensure that the project is completed o n time as well as to handle the change in force(p)ly. Moreover every after the progress merging, a project status report is to be filled out and if there will be a need for change, a project change request must be stolon completed before any change implementation.Risk Management identifies the risks and the ways to manage and control perils that will restrain the projects success. Form 2.7 lists the projects risk management techniques that will allow the team to prepare for the risks and on how to react on them.Project Staffing describes the human resource needs of the project. This document identifies the skills required for this project. As such, Form 2.8 provides a list of the qualifications needed for the project to ensure that it will be completed with highly skilled team members.Scope ManagementThe scope management defines the work required to complete the project. This supports the preliminary scope statement for it clarifies and provides more specific details. With this end, a Work Breakdown building (WBS) is created to define the total scope of the project. Although this does not show the tasks dependencies and duration, the WBS provides a basis for planning and managing project schedules, salutes, resources and changes (Young, 2007).Project OrganizationThe project organization is represented by the Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS). An OBS shows the decomposition of the projects responsibilities establish on its WBS. Through this, the PM can allocate responsibilities, and to distribute the work fairly and evenly among the team (Young, 2007, p. 132).Project ScheduleThe project schedule provides a summary of the overall project schedule for it gives a service line date of the projects completion. As such Table 2.2 identifies the project schedule that will be used to broadsheet the projects progress to ensure the timely finish of the project. The table lists the relationships of each activity, the critical four dates and its critical path that are essential on identifying the projects duration.Project BudgetThe project work out consists of project estimate and project budget wherein project estimate is the approximate personify of the resources needed to complete a project while project budget involves allocating the overall cost estimate to individual work items to establish a baseline for measuring performance. For this project in estimating its total cost, bottom-up estimate was done. Bottom-up estimate which is often called Activity Based Costing involves on estimating individual work items and summing them to get a project total (Schwalbe, 2008, p. 274). In this project, labor cost, production of promotional tools and the school presentation consume most of the budget. Form 2.9 provides a summary of the projects estimated cost.Project ExecutionProject execution is the introduce of performing the actual work as approved in the plan. This phase probably takes 90 percent or more of the projects effort. As such, the activities identified on the WBS are now being employ to produce the project deliverables (Verzuh, 2005, p. 38). (Refer Figure 2.2 for the projects WBS)Consequently this point of project lifecycle involves on managing and performing the work described in the project management plan and so as to ensure that the project will be undertaken accordingly, the PM must perform these three tasks Coordinating planning and execution Providing real leadership and a supportive culture and Capitalizing on product, business and exertion area knowledge.Project Monitoring and ControllingProject monitoring and absolute involves collecting, measuring and disseminating performance information. In this stage project status reports dissipation a pivotal role wherein all the activities are being introduce to measure the overall health of the project. Seven criteria are used for effective introduce and these are Work (is it to estimates (both time and cost)? Measurement (is everyone clear how to measure progress?) Timescales (are work plans being completed on schedule?) quality (are standards being met in accordance with specifications?) Teamwork (are responsibilities being adhered to?) shifts (are problem-solving tools being used effectively?) Stakeholders (are they being kept informed, consulted and involved?) (Young, 2007, p.211).In addition to this, since scope, schedule and cost comprise the success criteria for the project, these three are the primary focus on monitoring the projects progress. Table 2.4 lists various methods on monitoring these factors.The purpose of tracking the projects progress is to ensure that the team always have the information to make an accurate assessment of what has happened and compare it with what should have happen according to the plan. Through this comparison, the team can take corrective actions to such variance. For example, it was identified that the project is lagging behind, specifically in doing the marketing plan due to dis tant ideas. As such, various proposals were raised and one of these is to work overtime. With this corrective action, the imminent effect on project schedule was countered. Figure 2.3 summarizes the monitoring and coercive system for this project.Integrated Change ControlIntegrated change control is a management process for requesting, reviewing, approving, carrying out and controlling changes to the projects deliverables (Wallace 2007). Using the Project Change Request Form (Form 2.6) the project can achieve an effective change control through understanding the source requiring the change, identifying the pros and cons of adapting to the change and preparing plan in implementing the change. With this end, Figure 2.4 illustrates the projects change control process (Westland, 2003).After recognizing the need for change, Configuration Management is then implemented. Configuration management controls the different versions of the project. It focuses specifically on how to implement ap proved changes as it keeps everyone in the project rendition from the same sheet of music. For example, if the product proposal was changed midway through the project. This should be communicated to all the team members through updating the project reports so that the sub-teams liable for the other parts of the marketing plan can make adjustments. If this is failed to do so, this will lead to confusing marketing plan. As such if the product package is targeting the low-end schools but the pricing suggests a premium rate for the fitness equipment, this results to inconsistencies. To avoid this kind of scenario, they must perform this three configuration management step Identify the items that will be controlled, practise up the control structure, and assign responsibility for control (Verzuh, 2005, p.302).Project ClosureProject stop is the smallest phase of the project but no less than important than the others. This stage is signified by all tasks and specific deliverables, docu mentation manuals and process procedures are finished and to identify if the project is final examly completed Table 2.5 lists a closure checklist.When the project is deemed as completed, a close-out meeting is conducted to culminate all the efforts of the team member. The purpose of this meeting is to reach an agreement with the sponsor, in this case with Carr Ltd, to formally close the project. As such, Form 2.10 shows a sample of close-out meeting agenda.However the close-out meeting is not yet the end of the project for final report are yet to be done. This report includes project military rank and project appraisal. Project evaluation is used to review the project processes and the management of the project. There are two modes of evaluating the project active evaluation is conducted when the project is still in the works while post-project evaluation is after the projects turnover rate to the sponsor. On the other hand, project appraisal assesses the project as a whole for i t determines the gains and losses of the project. These assessments are done with the purpose to learn from experience and to improve future projects.In addition to this in every project undertaken, benefits are always expected on them. In some cases, benefits are achieved after sometime the project has been concluded. In this project however, the benefit has been complete even before the project closure. Carr Ltd gained a new income stream in this diversification project via the agreed upon contracts with the customers (schools) for it signifies the payment terms (tangible benefits).ConclusionProject integration management is often regarded as the key to overall project success for it ties together all areas of project management. Thus this holds the primary focus of a PM. SummaryProject management has come a yearn way since the formation of the pyramids in Egypt. Nowadays organizations have a regenerate interest on this specific field as the number of projects continues to creat e and their complexity continues to increase. This can be majorly attributed to the rise of modern project management tools and techniques for projects differ from the ongoing operations of a firm, managing those presents a new set of challenges. With this it resulted to developing tools and techniques that will deal with these challenges (Verzuh, 2005, p. 1).Accordingly throughout the paper, it presented various project management techniques. In the first case of Bojan Ltd, the use of network diagram was illustrated to stress the importance of completing the project on time. On the other hand, Carr Ltds problem of managing its new initiative was resolved by the project management integration that aims to ensure that all project elements come together at the right time to complete the project successfully. As such, the use of these tools punctuate that project management is a valued skill set in organizations across the spectrum.ReferencesBooksSchwalbe, K., 2008. Information Techno logy Project Management. 5th Edition. Philippines Cengage Learning Asia Pte Ltd.Verzuh, E., 2005. The fast Forward MBA in Project Management. 2nd Edition. New Jersey stool Wiley Sons, Inc. Young, T., 2007. The Handbook of Project Management. 2nd Edition. United Kingdom Kogan PageE-booksWestland, J., 2003. Project Management Guidebook. United States of America Method 1-2-3. E-book Available at http//www.thoughtware.com.au/documents/method123-ebook.pdf Accessed on 11 March 2010WebsitesBurns, M., 2005. Never Say No Managing Change in a Project. Online Available at http//www.easyweb.co.uk/articles/change-control.html Accessed on 11 March 2010Super-Business, n.d. Creating a Project Network Diagram. Online Available at http//www.super-business.net/IT-Project-Management/172.html Accessed 23 February 2010Wallace, S., 2007. Scope Change Control. Online Available at http//www.epmbook.com/scope.htm Accessed 11 March 2010

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