Wednesday, April 3, 2019
Research on crowd behaviour
Research on throng behaviorOn April 11 2001 Ellis Park Stadium in Johannesburg was filled beyond capacity as peck rushed to leverage football game match tickets. Police and security officials struggled to contain the gang and a stampede occurred. The crush resulted in around 250 injuries and 43 deaths. (Mason, 2001)Crowd behaviour can be surprising when individuals join a group and set in a manner which is out of character. This was certainly the state of affairs in this case, as the behaviour displayed that night was not characteristic of southeasterly African soccer spectators. (Ngoepe and Semenya, 2002) The suspicion therefore arises as to what influences the behaviour of the move. This discourse testamenting consider the factors affecting individuals once they ar part of a group by applying the study of crowd together behaviour specifically to this case. Research, theories and debates will be considered along with the implications this all has for social psychology in the future.From Le Bons perspective, this stampede is a classic example of crowd behaviour, where individuals support their palpate of self and responsibility by being anonymous members of a crowd, and atomic number 18 susceptible to contagion and suggestibility. The LeBonian and Freudian view of the crowd as ghoulish and abnormal (Ngoepe and Semenya, 2002) is reinforced in this case as members trampled over others in a bid to save themselves. (Mason, 2001) Le Bon proposed that basic, primitive instincts then arise, making violence and anti-social behaviour more likely. (Hogg and Vaughan, 2008) And violence most certainly ensued in this situation. Gates were ripped apart, many places around the stadium were being vandalised and several battalion were consequently crushed to death. (Ngoepe and Semenya, 2002)What both Le Bon and Freuds theories overlook however is the brilliance of the social dynamics of the event. They give no consideration to grievances and social conflict s (Reicher, 2001), nor do they take into account the inter-group relations between the police/security and the crowd. In this case, the stampede began when the untimely announcement was given to several thousand people who had travelled from all over the country that tickets for the event were sold out. (Ngoepe and Semenya, 2002) The net Report states that this was one of the causes of the tragedy. It is therefore important to consider barely explanations of crowd behaviour.Festinger, Pepitone and Newcombes research (1952), and Zimbardos Stanford Prison Study (****) placed great emphasis on anonymity and concluded that deindividuation was a key factor in hot behaviour and loss of self awareness.(Hogg and Vaughan, 2008) It is knockout in this case to greenback levels of anonymity however. Other theorists later revised this model as a result of research (Postmas and Spears, 1998, Diener, 1980) and Reicher at el (2001) argue that the individual doesnt lose his identity in the crow d but takes on a rising social identity. This is an important point for this case as it implies that an individuals behaviour and perspectives will be determined by the type of group that is involved. Reicher (2004) identifies that the values and standards of a crowd of Catholics will be very different from a crowd of soccer supporters This begins to address the suggestion in the case study that this wouldnt postulate happened at a cricket or rugby match. But does this incriminate disasters are inevitable in football crowds?Turner and Killians Emergent average Theory (****) changed the approach to crowd behaviour by identifying the presence of norms that come on from within the crowd which are deemed to be determination orientated (Hogg and Vaughan, 2008) Indeed, the crowds goal was to secure a place to watch the football match and this could nominate led to the crush. accessible Identity Theory begins to consider wider factors affecting the crowd and addresses the conflicts that may occur between groups which was a considerable factor in this case. Police and security personnel, in keeping with Le Bons view of the crowd as primitive, base and ghastly (Le Bon 1908), were deemed to be hostile to the spectators and displayed a world(a) disrespect for their dignity. (Ngoepe and Semenya, 2002) The preconceived views of security personnel may have served to save escalate the situation and to increase feelings of aggression in crowd members. (Stott and Reicher, 1998) Social psychologys theories on aggression can also be drawn upon to further elaborate on the event but the purpose of this discussion is to lie with primarily with collective behaviour. The Elaborated Social Identity Model set two conditions whereby the crowd may resort to violence and aggressive behaviour either an out group behaves in a counsel that is deemed as unfair or unwarranted, or others act in a way that prevents the crowd doing what they feel is legitimate. (Reicher 1996) And bot h of these conditions seem to be present in this situation. The crowd were prevented from accessing the stadium and they were subject field to tear gas and aggressive conduct. (Ngoepe and Semenya, 2002).The center appeared to be on crowd control rather than safety. (Mason, B 2001) The question therefore arises as to whether football crowds are thought of and treated otherwise to other groups by police, security and event planners.Social psychology plays a vital role in explaining crowd behaviour and later theories are particularly useful for the fact that they consider wider aspects than just the crowd itself. They discover that the crowd does not behave in isolation but is subject to influence from the environment and other groups. Theories regarding anonymity were difficult to apply in this case but needed to be considered for the influence they have had on other theorists. It is interesting to note that both LeBons and Freuds view of the crowd was mirror by security personnel . This is a key factor which needs to be considered further by event planners, police and security companies. Indeed, it is imperative that these groups suck in a better understanding of crowd behaviour in regularise to prevent future mistakes and disasters. Whilst it is easy to adopt the view of the crowd as an aggressive mob, it is very inaccurate to do so. Not only is it inaccurate, it is insidious and potentially life-threatening. (Reicher et al, 2004)During this discussion, questions have been raised which remain unanswered. They lead to the identification of areas in need of further research in the field of social psychology namely crowd types, particularly football crowds stewards and crowds preconceived ideas about football crowds inter-group dynamics and collective aggression. Whilst acknowledging that research on crowds can be difficult to implement, it is vital that further research is undertaken to prevent a repeat of this disaster.