Friday, April 5, 2019
Pre Implantation Genetic Testing Philosophy Essay
Pre Implantation Genetic Testing Philosophy Es label sympathy revolves around procreation. We need to reproduce in post to produce future generations. In the past few years, information and medicine has gained an immense amount of knowledge about pregnancy and the underlying fixmental stages of how it works. Furthermore, science is progressively improving, resulting in our faculty to diagnose, manipulate and close totimes treat catching abnormalities. Procedures such as the pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) were discontinueed as a subject matter to avoid selective abortions by detecting that the embryo is free of terrible lethal genetic diseases such as Huntingtons disease. However, recently PGD has been raising some good questions as people began utilize this technology for medically unrelated and unjustified reasons. Vanity and instantary motives of patients who give PGD for the creation of interior decorator babies and deliverer siblings violates the fundamen tal principle of clean-livingity. Using PGD for reasons other than justified genetic examen is impermissible beca usance it treats the likely baby as a marrow non as nullifys in itself therefore, it violates Kants second categorical imperative.Scientific BackgroundPGD works through a process of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF). In this procedure, multiple eggs are produced, retrieved from the ovaries and manually fertilized with the husbands sperm in a laboratory, outside of the female body3. As the embryos develop in vitro, embryo biopsy is performed by removing a single cell from each three day anile embryo4. These cells are analyzed-by a variety of methods-for particular chromosomal or genetic abnormalities in order to make love which embryos are free of genetic disease. Normal, healthy embryos are then transferred into the uterus where they bay window grow and develop into a healthy baby.ArgumentsKantImmanuel Kant came up with a moral philosophy that was based on a schem e of the Categorical Imperative. These are valid principles based off of the concept of duty that must be obeyed by all and are good in and of themselves. The second categorical imperative states that one should Act in such a way that you treat mankindity, whether in your own soul or in the person of whatsoever other, always at the same time as an decease and never purely as a means to an terminate2. In other words, one has entire duty to not use soul as a means to achieve a personal goal. This principle of wiseity formulates the ticker of moral law and requirements that quick of scent agents must follow. Furthermore, each rational being has autonomy, or a free leave to define their own law. However, possession of autonomy by each being implies that all persons should be do by equally, with the same amount of respect and one tail endnot infringe on the others rational will. The intuitive essence of humanity, therefore, objects to employ others as a mere tool because it all overlooks ones integrity and humanness. So, one cannot assert a moral remunerate to own a person-like a piece of property-because proprietary right over a person denies any existence of a free rational action furthermore, it denies the person a right to be an end in themselves. But, humans set out value and worth hence, they require to be respected. Each person deserves to be respected for his/her integral being (of who they are). While PGD is performed on fetuses, its use is still unjustified because fetuses are potential persons and therefore, require the same amount of respect as any other person. Furthermore, the use of PGD in creating designer babies and recoverer siblings violates Kants second categorical imperative.Designer BabiesA very compelling argument against PGD arises out of its soi-disant potential use in creating perfect designer babies. The technology behind PGD would allow evokes to select specific and nonessential traits (such as eye color, height, ath letic ability, even intelligence) that they want their child to express. Such technology is redolent of the Build-a-Bear Workshop but for grown-ups. Using PGD as a means for eugenics is fallacious and unjustified in many ways, such as its violation of the second categorical imperative.Parents have abused PGD use in order to have it cater to their undivided conceited expectations of creating a perfect child. They vainly pick and chose the traits they find effective and get rid of ones they find unhealthy or unperfect so they could satisfy their goal of not having a financially and socially burdensome child. Not only is this wrong because it discriminates against the disabled but also because it violates the core value of humanity by infringing upon the childs autonomous will by treating him/her as a means to an distant end. The parents social and economic ends are being pursued part the childs ends are being neglected. In intent a child, parents destruct the childs will (in a f ew different ways) therefore, they fail to treat them as an end in themselves. Physically, parents annihilate certain features their child would naturally possess (not to mention the obliteration of unwanted fetuses). By doing so, parents fail to treat the child humanistly. Also, altering mental abilities of a child is deceptive and confuses their will. Hence, it overlooks the rational ability of a-potential-rational agent and his/her end in himself/herself. Finally, parents restrict their childs will by altering their whole mental and sensible being and not allowing them to pursue their individual goals as they see fit4. In order for the mental and somatogenetic humanity to be treated as an end, ones will must exist. However, when parents select traits for their child, they overlook their childs dignified and humane right to be how they were naturally meant to be. They use their child as a means to reach some vain, social or economical end, therefore, violating Kants second cate gorical imperative. Every human being is a rational agent (even the fetus which is a potential person) and has autonomy therefore, one should not be treated as a means to an end. Because the use of PGD allows parents to use their children as a means to an unjustified end, its use is impermissible. deliveryman SiblingsAnother issue with using PGD rises out of its unjustified creation of savior siblings. A savior sibling is a child created by tissue typing and help of PGD in hope of providing a perfect HLA-match for the practicedly sick sibling in order to save his/her life. While the engineered child does not upbeat or is harmed, the implications of such procedure are morally un good. It objectifies the child, viewing him/her as a mere commodity, ignore the childs humane right to equality. Treating such child as a tool to cure another violates an ethical principle of treating a person as an end in himself/herself (violates the second CI) because it uses the child as a means for wh ich to treat the unhealthy older sibling. Such applications of PGD resemble buckle downry, where the savior child is a slave and the parent is a slave-owner. The parent would possess a right to own the slave child affirming the child as a commodity. But a child is not an object to have possession over the child is a person who requires respect and possesses an autonomous will to be an end in himself/herself. Therefore, creating a slave or savior sibling would violate the categorical imperative due to the demolishment of the childs free rational action. Thus, use of PGD for the creation of savior (slave) siblings is unjustified because it strongly violates Kants second categorical imperative.Furthermore, creation of savior siblings leads to other problems. In addition to being unethical, there is a strong belief that a childs profound identicalness would be impaired. They would be viewed as a secondary gain, a tool solely designed for the goal of saving another life. This impaired will of the child would lead to countless(prenominal) psychological problems. The mental looking at of the childs humane nature would be compromised-the child would lack self-esteem and self-rescpect-as he/she would not be praised for his/her individual value but rather as a means to a particular end. Parents, by using PGD for instrumentalization of their children, would violate the childs autonomous will and individual personal value by using them as mere means to parental ends and limiting a childs right to an open future4.In sum, PGD promotes unjustified creation of designer babies and savior siblings. The use of this technology allows parents to use their children (or potential children) as a means to satisfy their parental end therefore, neglecting the childs autonomous will to be an end in himself/herself. Thus using PGD to create designer babies and savior siblings is impermissible because it violates Kants second categorical imperative.OppositionPGD is argued to be unethic al in this paper however, others view its use acceptable and nothing more than a legitimate autonomous right of parents to produce healthy children. They deal that because parents are the most socially and economically affected by the birth of a child, then they should have the right and freedom to choose the identity of their offspring. Having a healthy child is in the parents interest because it is less socially and financially constraining and burdensome. Besides, being healthy is in the best interest of the child as well. The child would want to live a happy and healthy life, free of disease. If PGD can provide a tool for removing such lethal and stigmatizing disease form society, then it should be abruptly plausible to be able to use it. Parents have a right to choose what it best for their children and family therefore, using PGD as a means that will allow them to select for traits they see best fit for their child would be perfectly justified.RebuttalHowever, while these ar e plausible reasons for the use of PGD, they are not strong enough to shrive its immoral applications. Every single individual-even the potential person and the disabled-has a right to autonomy. No one can or should be able to define what life is worth living furthermore, no one can impose the quality of life of principle on another. As previously stated, we can not say that the disabled lead a good or a bad life it is simply not for us to decide. In fact, values of good and bad are of human conception and will diverge from person to person. Parents need to take responsibility, financially and mentally for their child regardless of its physical well-being. Good parent do not choose furthermore, they do not use their child as a means to appease their interest of having a less socially and financially constraining life. Using PGD for vain reasons is never morally justified. Using PGD for medicinal reasons is appropriate however, using it for designer babies and savior siblings viola tes the fundamental principle of ethical motive (Kants second categorical imperative) and therefore, can never be morally justified.ConclusionIn conclusion, PGD has revolutionized reproduction. It has granted penetration into a remote realm by allowing persons to select favorable genetic characteristics of offspring before implantation. However, while its promising view of the world without suffering and disease sounds appealing, moral justifications of PGD and its policy raise many concerns. much specifically, some of the issues with the use of this technology deal with the unjustified creation of designer babies and savior siblings. These are serious issues, the implications of which can have destructive and irreversible consequences on the present and future generations. While some of the applications of PGD whitethorn be accepted nevertheless, as of now, the risks outweigh the realizes. It is not medicines role to make one more socially accepted or be better-off. Those are no t the types of standards for us to decide. Intentional destruction of potential human life is never justified. PGD runs on a dangerously thin line of potential medicinal benefit and playing God. It also violates Kants second categorical imperative by treating fetuses as a mere means to an end. Therefore, until clear, strictly medicinal and ethical applications of PGD are established, the use of this technology can not be justified.